Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular structure and mechanical function. A, Representative M-mode echocardiographic images of the left ventricle (LV) from anesthetized mice. LV cav: cavity; LVAW: anterior wall; LVPW: posterior wall. B, Fractional shortening of the LV. C, Left panel: Exemplary transmitral velocity-time curves with positive peaks representing flow velocities during passive early filling (E) and atrial contraction (A). Vertical lines indicate the demarcation of ejection time (ET), deceleration time (DT), isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) and isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT). Right panel: Deceleration phase of the E peak. *, P < 0.05, Student’s t-test.