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Table 5 The regression coefficients (β) estimates and standard error (SE) of Log-HOMA-IR on HRV indices using 24-hour data, daytime (9 AM to 9 PM) and nighttime (9 PM to 9 AM next day) data separately from linear mixed-effects models analysis.

From: Insulin resistance and circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic modulation

    HRV index
    Log of HF (ms 2 ) Log of LF (ms 2 ) SDNN (ms) RMSSD (ms) LF/HF Ratio Heart Rate (bpm)
    Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE
Log HOMA-IR M 1 24-h -0.23 0.028** -0.24 0.021** -3.58 0.31** -1.93 0.34** 0.086 0.062 2.85 0.41**
   day -0.26 0.034** -0.22 0.027** -3.44 0.38** -1.86 0.35** 0.35 0.083** 2.80 0.60**
   night -0.19 0.043** -0.26 0.030** -3.73 0.49** -1.87 0.58** -0.18 0.092* 2.88 0.52**
  M 2 24-h -0.32 0.028** -0.29 0.021** -4.85 0.33** -2.64 0.37** 0.27 0.066** 3.34 0.46**
   day -0.33 0.035** -0.28 0.029** -4.31 0.39** -2.32 0.37** 0.52 0.086** 3.21 0.68*
   night -0.30 0.040** -0.31 0.032** -5.40 0.52** -2.78 0.62** 0.011 0.10 3.36 0.58**
  1. Abbreviations: BPM, beats per minute; HF, high frequency power; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HRV, heart rate variability; LF, low frequency power; Log, logarithm; M, mean; RMSSD, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals; SDNN, standard deviation of all RR intervals.
  2. Models: M1, unadjusted; M2, adjusted for age, sex, race, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases.
  3. Beta = one SD increase of Log HOMA-IR.
  4. *, and **, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively.