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Table 4 The association between cosine parameters of circadian pattern with Log HOMA-IR based on random-effects meta-analysis of 8 physician diagnosed type 2 diabetes individuals.

From: Insulin resistance and circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic modulation

    HRV index
    Log of HF (ms 2 ) Log of HF (ms 2 ) SDNN (ms) RMSSD (ms) LF/HF Ratio Heart Rate (BPM)
    Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE
Log HOMA-IR M1 M -0.57 0.29 -0.48 0.28 -6.14 8.12 -3.20 4.56 0.28 0.27 0.30 3.39
   Â -0.03 0.15 -0.003 0.12 -0.35 2.39 -2.30 1.24 0.04 0.17 -2.19 1.21
   θ 7.56 3.64 4.36 4.15 6.99 3.32 9.04 3.49* 2.51 4.28 0.97 1.63
  1. Abbreviations: Â, amplitude; BPM, beats per minute; HF, high frequency power; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HRV, heart rate variability; LF, low frequency power; Log, logarithm; M, mean; RMSSD, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals; SDNN, standard deviation of all RR intervals; VLF, very low frequency power; θ, acrophrase time.
  2. M1: unadjusted model; Beta: one SD increase of Log HOMA-IR.
  3. * = P < 0.05