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Table 3 The association between cosine parameters of circadian pattern with insulin resistance measures based on random-effects meta-analysis

From: Insulin resistance and circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic modulation

    HRV index  
    Log HF (ms 2 ) Log LF (ms 2 ) LF/HF ratio Log VLF(ms 2 ) SDNN (ms) RMSSD (ms) Heart Rate (bpm)
    Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE Beta SE
Log HOMA-IR M1 M -0.25 0.09** -0.24 0.08** 0.11 0.21 -0.19 0.06** -4.89 1.76** -3.35 1.31** 2.14 0.99*
   Â 0.04 0.03 -0.01 0.03 0.15 0.09 0.01 0.02 -0.19 0.61 -0.34 0.59 -0.28 0.48
   θ 0.11 0.91 1.33 1.12 -1.56 1.35 0.22 0.91 -0.60 0.91 -1.24 1.00 0.47 0.33
  M2 M -0.28 0.10** -0.28 0.08** 0.08 0.22 -0.23 0.07** -5.90 1.90** -3.50 1.45* 2.57 1.11*
   Â 0.01 0.04 -0.01 0.03 0.08 0.10 0.03 0.03 -0.002 0.67 -0.61 0.67 -0.16 0.54
   θ 0.22 1.04 1.04 1.26 -0.07 1.42 -0.02 1.01 -0.22 1.02 -1.14 1.12 0.26 0.37
Log insulin M1 M -0.23 0.09* -0.23 0.08** 0.05 0.21 -0.18 0.06** -4.41 1.75** -3.03 1.30* 1.94 1.00
   Â 0.04 0.03 -0.02 0.03 0.14 0.09 0.01 0.02 -0.21 0.60 -0.18 0.58 -0.09 0.48
   θ -0.40 0.94 0.91 1.14 -1.84 1.33 0.13 0.92 -0.87 0.92 -1.84 1.01 0.46 0.33
  M2 M -0.25 0.10** -0.26 0.08** 0.04 0.21 -0.20 0.06** -5.21 1.89** -3.15 1.44* 2.18 1.12*
   Â 0.02 0.04 -0.01 0.03 0.08 0.09 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.66 -0.35 0.65 0.07 0.54
   θ -0.41 1.07 0.47 1.27 -0.44 1.39 -0.26 1.02 -0.70 1.03 -1.82 1.13 0.24 0.36
Glucose M1 M -0.20 0.09* -0.17 0.08* 0.21 0.21 -0.16 0.06** -4.05 1.79* -2.31 1.34 1.04 1.01
   Â -0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.10 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.42 0.61 -0.81 0.59 -0.83 0.47
   θ 1.36 0.90 1.43 1.12 0.92 1.35 -0.21 0.91 0.07 0.92 1.42 1.02 0.08 0.34
  M2 M -0.16 0.10 -0.18 0.08* 0.08 0.22 -0.18 0.07** -4.41 1.93* -1.84 1.48 1.79 1.12
   Â -0.04 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.32 0.67 -1.25 0.66 -0.88 0.53
   θ 1.85 1.02 1.82 1.24 1.91 1.39 0.32 0.98 1.19 0.10 1.87 1.13 -0.05 0.37
  1. Abbreviations: Â, amplitude; BPM, beats per minute; HF, high frequency power; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HRV, heart rate variability; LF, low frequency power; Log, logarithm; M, mean; RMSSD, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals; SDNN, standard deviation of all RR intervals; VLF, very low frequency power; θ, acrophrase time.
  2. Models: M1, unadjusted; M2, adjusted for age, sex, race, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases.
  3. Beta = one SD increase of insulin resistance measurements. *, and **, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively.