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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study participants

From: Sleep apnea predicts distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarkers in obese adults with normal and impaired glucose metabolism

  All Men with NGM Women with NGM Women with IGM
  (n = 45) (n = 9) (n = 21) (n = 15)
Age, years 36 (34-46) 36 (34-39) 36 (31-48) 42 (34-55)
White race, n (%) 30 (66.7) 5 (55.6) 14 (66.7) 11 (73.3)
Anthropometrics     
   BMI, kg/m 47.3 (43.4-50.8) 49.1 (46.1- 55.2) 44.5 (40.5-48.2) 47.9 (43.4-52.3)
   Severely obese, n (%) 6 (13.3) 0 (0) 5 (23.8) 1 (6.7)
   Morbidly obese, n (%) 26 (57.8) 5 (55.6) 12 (57.1) 9 (60)
   Super obese, n (%) 12 (26.7) 4 (44.4) 3 (14.3) 5 (33.3)
   Super, super obese, n (%) 1 (2.2) 0 (0) 1 (4.8) 0 (0)
   Neck, cm 41 (39.1-45.5) 49.2 (45.2-53) 39.4 (37-41.5) 41.3 (40.2-48)
   Waist, cm 131.1 (122.3-144.2) 152 (143.7-161.8) 122.8 (113.6-134.3) 131.5 (125-136)
   Waist-to-hip ratio 0.93 (0.87-0.98) 1.05 (0.98-1.09) 0.92 (0.86-0.96) 0.93 (0.89-0.94)
   Sagittal abdominal diameter, cm 31 (28.5-35) 35 (29-36) 30 (28-33) 32 (29-35)
Metabolic outcomes     
   Glucose, mmol/L 5.2 (4.8-5.8) 4.8 (4.7-5.2) 4.8 (4.6-5.1) 6.2 (5.8-6.8)
   Insulin, pmol/L 89 (45.5-116.6) 107.6 (70.4-168.4) 75.9 (44.9-91.8) 97.3 (69.7-127)
   HOMA-IR, % 1.7 (1-2.2) 2.0 (1.3-3.1) 1.4 (0.8-1.7) 2.0 (1.6-2.6)
   HOMA-IS, % 60 (45.3-104.1) 49.6 (33.15-96.9) 71.8 (58.9-121.8) 50.9 (38.3-65.5)
   HOMA-B, % 110.4 (90.3-159) 152.2 (112.05-210.1) 134.1 (97.8-173.4) 97.5 (80.7-109.2)
   CRP, mg/L 8.1(4.8-11) 6.8 (4.5-9.2) 7.3 (3.7-10.1) 9.6 (7.6-14.3)
Adipocytokines     
   IL-1ß, pg/mL 0.41 (0.38-0.5) 0.44 (0.4-0.56) 0.4 (0.36-0.5) 0.41 (0.38-0.48)
   IL-6, pg/mL 1.95 (1.33-2.69) 1.63 (0.96-2.18) 1.67 (1.33-2.63) 2.33 (1.49-3.98)
   IL-8, pg/mL 10.85 (8.36-13.15) 11.41 (10.85-13.15) 8.98 (6.9-13.24) 11.84 (9.16-12.99)
   TNF-α, pg/mL 2.46 (2.03-3.16) 3.1 (2.36-3.2) 2.3 (1.93-3.45) 2.5 (2.13-2.96)
   sTNFαR1, ng/mL 3.25 (2.28-4.33) 2.78 (2.02-4.30) 3.24 (2.18-4.11) 3.65 (2.79-4.41)
   sTNFαR2, ng/mL 5.13 (4.22-6.72) 5.17 (4.16-6.53) 4.54 (4-6.62) 6.23 (4.55-6.78)
   Leptin, μg/L 73.5 (56.7-94.9) 48.4 (43.4-61.5) 81.3 (72.3-103.0) 85.1 (47.2-95.9)
   Leptin receptor, μg/L 16.2 (14.5-18.6) 14.5 (13.4-15.7) 16.4 (16.0-18.6) 16.6 (15.1-21.2)
   Ghrelin, pg/mL 736.7 (589-983.2) 622.6 (533.8-720.7) 682.5 (573.6-946.7) 900.2 (690.9-1091.1)
   Adiponectin, μg/mL 8.4 (6-10.6) 7.4 (3.6-9.1) 10.2 (7.7-11.6) 6.8 (5.8-11.4)
Sleep architecture     
   Total sleep time, min 398 (365-436) 359 (338-403) 398 (365-436) 412 (373-460)
   Sleep efficiency, % 87 (81.8-93.2) 89 (79.7-96.5) 86 (83-91) 90 (84.5-96)
   WASO, min 37.5 (16.5-71) 43.1 (13.5-81.5) 40.5 (16.5-58.5) 29.2 (16.5-71)
   N1, % 10.6 (7.7-16.2) 11.0 (8.7-24.9) 12.7 (8.1-16.3) 8.4 (5.2-13.8)
   N2, % 59.7 (53.4-65.3) 55.3 (52.1-66.4) 55.7 (48.7-63.8) 64.3 (59.9-68.5)
   N3, % 11.1 (2.4-16.7) 2.9 (0-11.2) 16.5 (2.4-19.7) 10.3 (5.4-13.1)
   REM sleep, % 15.6 (11.2-18.9) 15.9 (14.2-19.9) 14.4 (10.4-17.7) 16.6 (12.9-22.3)
PSG results     
   Total AHI, events/h 14.2 (6.4-22.9) 48 (22.5-71) 9 (4.2-16.5) 16.1 (4.9-22.9)
Obstructive apnea index, events/h 11.9 (5.5-18.9) 31.3 (17.7-57.6) 7.4 (4.2-11.9) 14.3 (4.9-18.3)
Central apnea index, events/h 0.24 (0-0.85) 0.41 (0-1.42) 0.25 (0-1.06) 0.23 (0-0.64)
Mixed apnea index, events/h 0.02 (0-0.39) 0.25 (0-0.75) 0 (0-0.36) 0 (0-0.33)
   NREM AHI, events/h 9.6 (4.4-17.5) 44.1 (21.3-74.4) 5.2 (2.8-12) 9.6 (3-15.1)
   REM AHI, events/h 32.3 (10.5-50.3) 53.4 (34.15-75.15) 23.3 (5.4-38.8) 32.8 (17.3-50.3)
   ▪ No OSA, n (%) 10 (22.2) 0 (0) 6 (28.5) 4 (26.7)
   ▪ Mild OSA, n (%) 14 (31.1) 2 (22.2) 9 (42.9) 3 (20)
   ▪ Moderate OSA, n (%) 13 (28.9) 2 (22.2) 5 (23.8) 6 (40)
   ▪ Severe OSA, n (%) 8 (17.8) 5 (55.6) 1 (4.8) 2 (13.3)
   ODI, events/h 7.7 (3.8-16.6) 27.8 (10.3-69.6) 4.3 (2.2-9.4) 9.3 (4.2-18.4)
   MeanSaO2, % 94.9 (93.5-95.9) 94.5 (89.4-95.9) 95.1 (93.7-95.9) 95.2 (93.5-95.4)
   LowSaO2, % 91.4 (89.8-92.7) 90.1 (83-91.9) 92.5 (90.1-93.2) 91.6 (88.0-92.6)
   MinSaO2, % 85 (82-88) 82 (68-85) 87 (83-88) 84 (72-88)
   ΔSaO2, % 4.5 (4-5) 4.9 (4.8-11.3) 4.2 (3.6-4.6) 4.6 (4.0-6.6)
  1. *Data are expressed as medians (IQR) if not otherwise stated. NGM, normal glucose metabolism. IGM, impaired glucose metabolism. WASO, wake after sleep onset. N1, N2, N3, stages of NREM sleep.