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Table 2 Fall/Winter to Spring/Summer Differences

From: Daily steps are low year-round and dip lower in fall/winter: findings from a longitudinal diabetes cohort

  Fall/Winter, mean (SD) across individuals Spring/Summer, mean (SD) across individuals Within-Individual Fall/Winter to Spring/Summer Differences (95% CI)
Objective measures    
   Walking, steps/day 4,901 (2,464) 5,659 (2,611) -758 (-1,037 to -479)
   Hemoglobin A1Ca, % 7.6 (1.3) 7.7 (1.3) -0.10 (-0.21 to 0)
   Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 137 (16) 133 (14) 4.0 (2.3 to 5.7)
   Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 80 (10) 79 (9) 1.4 (0.4 to 2.4)
   BMI, kg/m2 30.2 (6.0) 30.2 (6.0) 0.07 (-0.04 to 0.18)
   Waist circumference, cm    
Women 98.7 (14.1) 98.9 (13.8) -0.2 (-1.0 to 0.5)
Men 104.2 (13.0) 104.8 (12.7) -0.5 (-1.3 to 0.2)
   Waist/hip    
Women 0.879 (0.063) 0.882 (0.061) -0.003 (-0.01 to 0.004)
Men 0.967 (0.060) 0.971 (0.060) -0.004 (-0.01 to 0.004)
Self-reported measures    
   Total energy intake, kcal/dayb 1,730 (684) 1,700 (662) 30.0 (-37.9 to 98.0)
   Carbohydrate intake, g/dayb 187 (76) 182 (74) 5.7 (-2.9 to 14.4)
   Salt intake, mg/dayb 2,598 (1353) 2,546 (1182) 51.9 (-86.3 to 190)
   Total physical activity, metabolic equivalent-minutes/weekc 2,598 (2463) 2,921 (2700) -451 (-872 to -30.4)
  1. SD, standard deviation; CI, Confidence interval
  2. a Given that A1C reflects glycemic control over the prior two to three months, winter/spring A1C values may reflect fall/winter glycemic control and summer/fall A1C values may reflect spring/summer glycemic control. We therefore also computed Winter/spring to Summer/Fall difference in A1C which was 0.012% (95% CI -0.10% to 0.13%).
  3. b Shatenstein and colleagues' Food Frequency Questionnaire [21]
  4. c International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Last 7 days format) [20]