Saturated NEFA stimulate IL-6 and TNF-α production. A, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration in 24-hour conditioned media from THP-1 cells that were untreated or stimulated with 500 μM palmitate or stearate, or NEFA- and endotoxin-free BSA. B, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in THP-1 cells stimulated as in A for 12 hours. C, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in THP-1 cells stimulated with the indicated concentrations of palmitate for 12 hours. Values are means ± SE (n = 3-4). *, p < 0.05, # p < 0.01 versus BSA treatment, ND - below the limit of detection.