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Table 3 Parameters of cardiac assessment in IR(+) or IR(-), in subjects with normal glucose metabolism and in different degrees of glucose metabolism disturbances.

From: Insulin resistance and glycemic abnormalities are associated with deterioration of left ventricular diastolic function: a cross-sectional study

Variable IR (+) IR(-) p-valuea NGT IGT T2DM5# p-valuea
n 38 (18) 113 (54) - 64 (31) 54 (26) 90 (43) -
Diastolic function        
Normal DF, n (%) 3 (8) 32 (28) - 24 (38) 8 (15) 6 (7) -
LVDD (any degree), n (%) 35 (92) 81 (72) 0.013* 40 (63) 46 (85) 84 (93) 0.001*
LVDD grade I, n (%) 23 (60%) 54 (48) 0.015* 29 (45) 34 (63) 49 (54) 0.001*
LVDD grade II, n (%) 12 (32) 27 (24) 0.017* 11 (17) 12 (22) 35 (39) 0.001*
IVS (mm) 11(11-13) 11 (10-13) 0.378 11 (10-13) 11 (10-13) 12 (11-14) 0.012*
Echocardiography        
PLW (mm) 12 (9-12) 11 (10-13) 0.617 11 (9-13) 11 (10-13) 12 (10-14) 0.053
LVEDD (mm) 47 (43-49) 44 (40-48) 0.084 45 (41-48) 44 (40-49) 44 (39-48) 0.264
LVESD (mm) 30 (27-35) 30 (26-34) 0.984 31 (28-36) 29 (26-34) 28 (24-33) 0.037*
RWT 0.48 (0.44-0.58) 0.51 (0.43-0.62) 0.625 0.49 (0.40-0.58) 0.48 (0.44-0.59) 0.53 (0.46-0.64) 0.012*
LVM (g/m2) 87 (68-109) 84 (69-104) 0.900 83 (69-100) 84 (68-107) 90 (69-111) 0.430
LA- Index (ml/m2) 31 (25-38) 30 (24-36) 0.555 28 (24-32) 31 (25-37) 32 (27-38) 0.001*
EF biplan (%) 70 (63-73) 67 (62-71) 0.119 65 (61-70) 67 (63-73) 67 (62-73) 0.205
Smax (cm/s) 6.40 (5.70-7.10) 6.25 (5.50-7.15) 0.883 6.3 (5.6-7.3) 6.3 (5.4-7.0) 6.0 (5.3-7.1) 0.246
VE (cm/s) 70 (60-80) 60 (50-70) 0.155 60 (50-70) 60 (50-80) 70 (60-90) 0.012*
VA (cm/s) 80 (60-90) 70 (60-85) 0.115 70 (55-85) 70 (60-90) 80 (70-90) <0.001*
VE/VA 0.8 (0.7-1.1) 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 0.566 0.9 (0.8-1.2) 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 0.8 (0.7-1.1) 0.218
E ' septal (cm/s) 5.7 (4.7-7.1) 6.1 (5.3-7.9) 0.099 6.5 (5.3-8.2) 6.2 (5.3-7.6) 5.6 (4.9-6.6) 0.001*
A ' (cm/s) 9.2 (8.0-10.2) 9.6 (8.4-10.4) 0.644 9.7 (8.7-10.4) 9.5 (8.6-10.4) 9.0 (7.810.2) 0.028*
E ' lateral (cm/s) 8.3 (6.5-9.1) 8.8 (7.0-10.6) 0.085 9.4 (7.3-10.9) 8.4 (6.6-10.2) 7.7 (6.5-9.2) 0.002*
Overage E' 7.3 (5.4-7.9) 7.5 (6.2-9.1) 0.061 7.9 (6.3-9.5) 7.3 (5.7-8.7) 6.8 (5.6-7.8) <0.001*
E'/A' septal 0.6 (0.5-0.8) 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 0.102 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 0.7 (0.5-0.7) 0.087
E/E' septal 11.3 (9.6-15.1) 9.8 (7.7-12.7) 0.014* 8.9 (7.3-11.9) 10.2 (8.5-14.1) 12.2 (9.6-15.3) <0.001*
Overage VE/E' 9.8 (8.3-11.5) 8.1 (6.6-11.0) 0.011* 7.6 (6.2-10.1) 8.8 (7.4-11.0) 10.5 (8.1-13.2) <0.001*
PVsys (cm/s) 59 (50-66) 60 (51-67) 0.380 59 (50-65) 60 (51-68) 60 (55-68) 0.089
PVdia (cm/s) 46 (38-53) 43 (38-55) 0.839 44 (39-54) 43 (36-52) 46 (40-55) 0.468
PVsys/PVdia 1.2 (1.1-1.5) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 0.346 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 1.4 (1.1-1.6) 1.4 (1.1-1.6) 0.325
PVa-max (cm/s) 31 (25-34) 31 (28-35) 0.240 31 (28-35) 31 (26-34) 32 (28-35) 0.382
GLS_Avg (-%) 19.3 (21.8-17.0) 19.5 (22.0-17.3) 0.812 20 (22-18) 19 (22-17) 19 (21-17) 0.363
Cardiac assessment        
CAD, n (%) 23 (60) 62 (55) 0.339 26 (41) 37 (69) 57 (64) 0.003*
Hx. CABG 1 (3) 5 (5) 0.437 2 (3) 2 (4) 8 (9) 0.223
Hx. PTCA 14 (37) 46 (41) 0.412 14 (22) 28 (52) 43 (49) 0.001*
Hx. MI, n (%) 10 (26) 26 (23) 0.416 7 (11) 19 (35) 16 (18) 0.004*
NYHA (mean, SD) 2.0 (± 0.61) 1.9 (± 0.61) 0.337 1.8 1.8 2.0 0.249
NT-pro-BNP (pg/ml) (143 ± 105-228) 131 (74-280) 0.916 116 (65-123) 126 (75-114) 152 (80-417) 0.283
  1. CAD = coronary artery disease, CABG = coronary artery bypass graft, DF = diastolic function, GLS = global longitudinal strain, Hx = history off, IVS = intraventricular septum, LA= left atrium, LVEDD = left ventricular enddiastolic diameter, LVESD = left ventricular endsystolic parameter, EF = ejection fraction, LVMi = left ventricular mass index, E '= early diastolic tissue doppler velocity, PVsys = systolic pulmonary vein flow velocity, PVdia = diastolic pulmonary vein flow velocity, PTCA = Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, PLW = posterolateral wall, RWT = relative wall thickness, SD = Standard deviation, Smax = maximal systolic velocity at the septal mitral annulus, VA = late diastolic transmitral inflow velocity, VE = early diastolic transmitral inflow velocity