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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study participants

From: Circadian blood pressure variability in type 1 diabetes subjects and their nondiabetic siblings - influence of erythrocyte electron transfer

Characteristic Controls T1D patients Siblings
Age (years) 46 ± 12 46 ± 10 45 ± 10
BMI (kg/m2) 24 ± 3 25 ± 4 26 ± 5*
Office SBP (mmHg) 117 ± 9 126 ± 14• 118 ± 21
Office DBP (mmHg) 79 ± 4 79 ± 9 82 ± 12
Never smoker/smoker/ex 14/6/5 11/4/5 13/2/5
Deep Breathing (E:I) 1.36 ± 0.14 1.33 ± 0.12 1.36 ± 0.17
Lying to Standing (30:15) 1.42 ± 0.39 1.20 ± 0.14* 1.45 ± 0.28‡
Valsalva ratio 2.07 ± 0.70 1.68 ± 0.33* 1.95 ± 0.46†
Standing ΔSBP [-5, -20 +10] [-10, -45 +10] [-8, -30 +10]
  1. Data are mean ± SD or [median, range]. *p < 0.05, •p < 0.01, ¶p < 0.001 comparing T1D or their siblings vs. normal control subjects; †p < 0.05, ‡p < 0.01, #p < 0.001 comparing siblings vs. T1D.
  2. BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; Standing ΔSBP, orthostatic fall in SBP.