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Table 1 Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease [10, 20]

From: Therapies for type 2 diabetes: lowering HbA1c and associated cardiovascular risk factors

Modifiable Risk Factors Non-modifiable Risk Factors
Overweight/obesity Family history of diabetes or premature CHD
Sedentary lifestyle Cardiovascular disease
Cigarette smoking Latino/Hispanic, Non-Hispanic black, Asian American, Native American, or Pacific Islander ethnicity
Hypertension History of gestational diabetes
Increased LDL-C and/or triglycerides and/or low HDL-C History of delivery of infant with birth weight >9 pounds
Psychiatric illness Polycystic ovary syndrome
IGT or IFG Age
  1. CHD, coronary heart disease; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.