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Table 2 Clinical characteristics between the diabetic patients with and without IMT thickening.

From: The estimated GFR, but not the stage of diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion, is associated with the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

  %/Mean (SD)  
  IMT < 1.1 mm IMT ≥ 1.1 mm P
  (n = 195) (n = 143)  
Age (years) 62 (12) 69 (9) < 0.01
Men 64 65 0.78
Duration of diabetes mellitus (years) 9 (8) 13 (12) < 0.01
Current plus past smoking 57 58 0.99
Current drinker 42 43 0.66
Therapeutic method for diabetes mellitus    
Diet only/OHA/Insulin 5/50/45 4/51/45 0.75
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.7 (4.7) 24.1 (3.8) 0.19
Obesity# 37 34 0.53
Hypertension 73 85 < 0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 132 (18) 133 (21) 0.40
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76 (12) 76 (12) 0.67
Antihypertensive agents    
   ACEi 20 19 0.89
   ARB 41 52 0.04
   CCB 43 54 0.04
Hyperlipidaemia 75 71 0.38
   Statin 55 54 0.85
HbA1c (%) 7.2 (1.7) 7.3 (1.7) 0.40
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 (1.1) 5.0 (1.1) 0.29
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.9 (1.0) 3.0 (0.9) 0.25
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.5 (0.4) 1.4 (0.3) 0.31
Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 99 (81) 110 (76) 0.22
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 61.0 (21.6) 52.8 (20.6) < 0.01
CKD stage    < 0.01
   Stage 1 7 2  
   Stage 2 52 36  
   Stage 3 33 48  
   Stage 4+5 8 15  
Diabetic retinopathy$ 40 50 0.096
Diabetic neuropathy 84 84 0.87
Cerebrovascular disease 19 28 0.04
Coronary heart disease 17 27 0.02
Peripheral arterial disease 4 5 0.55
Diabetic nephropathy    0.28
   Stage I 49 46  
   Stage II 25 24  
   Stage III 19 16  
   Stage IV 7 14  
ABI 1.1 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) 0.27
baPWV (cm/s) 1736 (403) 1876 (375) < 0.01
  1. OHA: oral hypoglycemic agents, ACEi: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker, CCB: calcium channel blocker, GFR: glomerular filtration rate, CKD: chronic kidney disease, ABI: ankle-brachial index, and baPWV: brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.
  2. # Obesity includes individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.
  3. $ Diabetic retinopathy includes simple, pre-proliferative, and proliferative retinopathies.