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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patients.

From: The estimated GFR, but not the stage of diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion, is associated with the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

  %/Mean (SD) Number estimated (%)
Age (years) 65 (11) 338 (100)
Men 64 338 (100)
Duration of diabetes mellitus (years) 11 (10) 254 (75)
Current plus past smoking 57 282 (83)
Current drinker 43 268 (79)
Therapeutic method for diabetes mellitus   338 (100)
   Diet only/OHA/Insulin 4/51/44  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.4 (4.4) 333 (99)
Obesity# 36 333 (99)
Hypertension 78 338 (100)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 132 (19) 338 (100)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76 (12) 338 (100)
Antihypertensive agents   338 (100)
   ACEi 19  
   ARB 46  
   CCB 48  
Hyperlipidaemia 73 338 (100)
   Statin 54  
HbA1c (%) 7.2 (1.7) 316 (94)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 (1.1) 262 (78)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.9 (1.0) 297 (88)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.5 (0.4) 299 (89)
Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 92 (69) 338 (100)
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 57.5 (21.5) 338 (100)
CKD stage   338 (100)
   Stage 1 5  
   Stage 2 45  
   Stage 3 39  
   Stage 4+5 11  
Diabetic retinopathy$ 45 254 (75)
Diabetic neuropathy 84 256 (76)
Cerebrovascular disease 23 336 (99)
Coronary heart disease 21 337 (100)
Peripheral arterial disease 4 338 (100)
Diabetic nephropathy   321 (95)
   Stage I 47  
   Stage II 25  
   Stage III 17  
   Stage IV 11  
ABI 1.1 (0.1) 240 (71)
baPWV (cm/s) 1794 (397) 239 (71)
IMT (mm) 1.06 (0.27) 338 (100)
  1. OHA: oral hypoglycemic agents, ACEi: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker, CCB: calcium channel blocker, GFR: glomerular filtration rate, CKD: chronic kidney disease, ABI: ankle-brachial index, and baPWV: brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.
  2. # Obesity includes individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.
  3. $ Diabetic retinopathy includes simple, pre-proliferative, and proliferative retinopathies.