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Table 1 Participant characteristics (n = 97).

From: Elevated circulating levels of an incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, are associated with metabolic components in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease

  MetS (n = 60) Pre-MetS (n = 37) P-value
Age (year) 52.8 ± 14.2 50.3 ± 16.6 0.494
Sex, female (%) 22 (36.7%) 17 (45.9%) 0.333
BMI (kg/m2) 32.1 ± 6.5 29.0 ± 4.9 0.015
Waist circumference (cm) 103 ± 15 98 ± 11 0.093
Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 114 ± 28 130 ± 41 0.025
Plasma insulin (IU/mL) 33.0 ± 36.4 33.4 ± 37.5 0.961
HOMA-IR 4.8 ± 6.6 4.7 ± 7.0 0.944
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 129 ± 33 121 ± 36 0.366
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 50.5 ± 11.9 61.1 ± 12.4 0.001
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 235 ± 224 151 ± 128 0.200
HbA1c (%) 5.7 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 1.0 0.605
CRP (μg/dL) 254 ± 575 156 ± 226 0.323
Smoking, n (%) 14 (23.3%) 11 (29.7%) 0.484
Hypertension, n (%) 37 (61.7%) 20 (54.1%) 0.623
Diabetes/IFG, n (%) 21 (35.0%) 14 (37.8%) 0.658
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 38 (63.3%) 18 (48.6%) 0.236
Coronary artery disease, n (%) 13 (21.7%) 2 (5.4%) 0.027
Hyper uric acidemia 14 (23.3%) 10 (27.0%) 0.596
Fatty liver disease 10 (16.7%) 11 (29.7%) 0.102
Chronic kidney disease 5 (8.3%) 2 (5.4%) 0.627
OSAS, n (%) 4 (6.7%) 1 (2.7%) 0.416
Statin use, n (%) 27 (45.0%) 7 (18.9%) 0.016
Diuretic use, n (%) 12 (20.0%) 6 (16.2%) 0.658
β-blockers, n (%) 21 (35.0%) 13 (35.1%) 0.899
RAAS inhibitors, n (%) 10 (16.7%) 6 (16.2%) 0.985
Ca-channel blockers, n (%) 31 (51.7%) 14 (37.8%) 0.326
Aspirin, n (%) 21 (35.0%) 7 (18.9%) 0.117
Metabolic score (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) 3.3 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.7 <0.001
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD whereas categorical variables are presented as counts and percentages. BMI, body mass index; HOMA-IR, homeostatis model assessment; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, high density lipoprotein; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; RAAS, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; Ca-channel, calcium channel.