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Table 1 Prospective studies evaluating the effect of elevated circulating IL-18 levels on cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and diabetes related end points.

From: The role of interleukin-18 in the metabolic syndrome

Study Patients (n) and study population Follow-up, years End points Outcome
Blankenberg et al. [56] 1229
(known CAD)
4 Cardiovascular mortality Increased risk of cardiovascular mortality
Blankenberg et al. [58] 335 cases and 670 controls (healthy men) 5 CAD Increased risk of CAD
Everett et al. [59] 253 cases and 253 controls (healthy women) 6 CVD Increased risk of CVD
Koenig et al. [60] 382 cases and 1980 controls (population based) 11 CAD No increased risk of CAD
Espinola-Klein et al. [62] 1263, stratified for MS (known CAD) 6 Cardiovascular mortality Increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in MS strata
Trøseid et al. [63] 563, stratified for MS (elderly high risk men) 3 CVD Increased risk of CVD in MS strata
Thorand et al. [50] 527 cases and 1698 controls (population based) 11 Type 2 diabetes Increased risk of type 2 diabetes
Hivert et al. [49] 1012 cases and 1081 controls (women) 12 Type 2 diabetes Increased risk of type 2 diabetes
  1. CAD; coronary artery disease, CVD; cardiovascular disease, MS; metabolic syndrome.