Effect of high glucose and PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220, NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 on TNF-α expression in cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes cultured in high glucose levels showed higher expression of TNF-α compared with control group. After adding PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220 (50 nmol/L) and NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (5 μmol/L), the expression of TNF-α decreased compared with the cardiomyocytes cultured in high glucose levels as shown in figure 5. Treatment with mannital, used as an osmotic control, had no significant effect on the expression of TNF-α in cardiomyocytes. The results were expressed as means ± SE (n = 4 or 5). * P < 0.05 vs control group, #P < 0.05 vs high glucose group.