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Table 2 Characteristics* of women according to quintiles of resting heart rate

From: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with the metabolic syndrome

Women (n = 2,600) 1st Quintile 2nd Quintile 3rd Quintile 4th Quintile 5th Quintile ANOVA P for linear trend
HR < 64 64 ≤ HR < 70 70 ≤ HR < 76 76 ≤ HR < 82 HR ≥ 82 P Value
n = 518 n = 519 n = 571 n = 454 n = 538  
Age (years) 47 (10) 46 (10) 44 (10) 42 (10) 41 (11) < 0.001 < 0.001
Waist (cm) 80 (11) 81 (11) 81 (11) 83 (13) 82 (13) 0.006 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 (3.9) 24.8 (4.1) 25.0 (4.2) 25.6 (5.3) 25.3 (5.1) 0.002 < 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73 (7) 73 (8) 73 (8) 74 (8) 75 (9) < 0.001 < 0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 115 (14) 116 (15) 115 (15) 116 (15) 118 (16) 0.003 0.001
Alcohol consumption (glass/week) 0.7 (1.6) 0.5 (1.3) 0.6 (1.3) 0.5 (1.2) 0.4 (1.0) 0.007 0.006
Physical exercise (hours/week) 2.7 (2.8) 2.0 (2.4) 1.7 (2.4) 1.7 (2.5) 1.6 (2.6) < 0.001 < 0.001
Smoking status, n(%)        
   Former 158 (30.5) 128 (24.7) 140 (24.5) 101 (22.2) 105 (19.5) 0.001  
   Never 360 (69.5) 391 (75.3) 431 (75.5) 353 (77.8) 433 (80.5)   
Hypertension, n (%) 45 (8.7) 56 (10.8) 50 (8.8) 55 (12.1) 81 (15.1) 0.004  
Metabolic Syndrome, n (%) 27 (5.2) 36 (6.9) 47 (8.2) 47 (10.4) 74 (13.3) < 0.001  
Glucose (mmol/l) 4.89 (0.52) 4.90 (0.51) 5.00 (0.68) 5.01 (0.87) 5.14 (0.91) < 0.001 < 0.001
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.72 (0.39) 1.70 (0.37) 1.68 (0.37) 1.66 (0.37) 1.68 (0.40) 0.165 0.031
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.07 (0.83) 3.09 (0.86) 3.06 (0.87) 3.03 (0.82) 3.02 (0.82) 0.635 0.165
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.89 0.96 1.03 1.04 1.11 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. * data presented as arithmetic mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables (with the exception of triglycerides which are presented as geometric mean) and number of individuals (percentage) for dichotomous variables.
  2. ** list of abbreviations: HR = heart rate; ANOVA = analysis of variance; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low density lipoprotein.