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Table 5 Cumulative total direct medical costs and length of stay for cardiovascular events during 3 years of follow-up by follow-up cardiovascular event type and diabetic status

From: Incremental cardiovascular costs and resource use associated with diabetes: an assessment of 29,863 patients in the US managed-care setting

Follow-up CV Event Type* Patients with Diabetes
(n = 5,501)
Patients without Diabetes
(n = 24,362)
  No. of Patients Cost of
Follow-Up
Hospital LOS § No. of Patients Cost of
Follow-Up
Hospital LOS §
1 Year:       
All patients with CV events** 5,501 8,805 (22,277) 1.6 (7.4) 24,362 6,982 (18,545) 1.0 (4.8)
   CABG 412 6,894 (13,122) 0.7 (2.8) 1,492 6,690 (13,159) 0.6 (2.8)
   Other CV procedure 1,417 11,195 (19,917) 1.3 (3.7) 7,196 9,628 (22,946) 0.9 (3.5)
   Myocardial infarction 1,420 12,256 (31,941) 1.7 (5.2) 7,811 9,502 (24,244) 1.1 (4.4)
   Heart failure 686 9,324 (22,806) 3.3 (16.4) 1,558 8,711 (26,334) 1.9 (6.4)
   Angina 315 5,463 (19,684) 0.6 (3.1) 1,336 3,985 (11,352) 0.4 (1.6)
   Other IHD 2,011 8,053 (17,264) 1.2 (4.4) 9,247 6,167 (14,279) 0.8 (3.4)
   Ischemic stroke 552 7,521 (13,388) 2.2 (7.0) 2,082 6,052 (11,827) 1.9 (9.4)
   TIA/other CVA 395 3,648 (8,469) 0.9 (3.6) 1,929 2,544 (9,369) 0.6 (5.3)
   PVD 38 8,537 (20,215) 2.5 (5.0) 126 6,163 (17,706) 0.9 (3.2)
2 Years:       
All patients with CV events†† 2,132 13,860 (26,619) 2.3 (8.6) 9,522 10,056 (22,677) 1.3 (5.3)
   CABG 155 10,161 (14,314) 2.3 (19.6) 589 10,313 (17,319) 0.9 (3.8)
   Other CV procedure 560 17,980 (29,350) 2.5 (11.5) 2,806 13,980 (24,577) 1.2 (3.8)
   Myocardial infarction 530 19,703 (37,992) 2.9 (12.1) 3,091 13,520 (27,764) 1.4 (5.1)
   Heart failure 251 14,535 (27,065) 4.1 (11.6) 568 12,606 (35,669) 2.6 (8.2)
   Angina 129 6,869 (13,410) 1.2 (4.0) 576 5,015 (11,391) 0.4 (1.7)
   Other IHD 802 12,485 (20,869) 1.6 (4.4) 3,585 9,207 (18,789) 1.1 (3.8)
   Ischemic stroke 211 12,893 (19,845) 3.4 (9.5) 694 8,686 (15,325) 1.9 (8.2)
   TIA/other CVA 155 6,916 (14,687) 1.5 (7.3) 844 4,576 (15,012) 1.0 (7.8)
   PVD 14 9,802 (14,433) 1.1 (3.3) 52 5,380 (10,697) 0.7 (2.0)
3 Years:       
All patients with CV events‡‡ 735 16,149 (27,290) 3.3 (12.4) 3,141 12,163 (26,268) 1.8 (5.8)
   CABG 54 14,299 (20,342) 5.6 (34.4) 189 11,445 (17,920) 1.1 (3.9)
   Other CV procedure 174 21,821 (29,208) 4.2 (19.7) 864 17,150 (24,413) 1.5 (3.7)
   Myocardial infarction 194 19,773 (32,653) 4.0 (18.9) 984 16,566 (33,829) 2.0 (6.0)
   Heart failure 84 17,641 (33,665) 6.2 (17.5) 198 15,309 (40,834) 2.9 (7.0)
   Angina 45 10,744 (19,220) 1.9 (6.6) 185 4,844 (9,124) 0.5 (1.5)
   Other IHD 268 16,428 (25,001) 2.7 (5.8) 1,179 12,031 (21,739) 1.9 (6.3)
   Ischemic stroke 71 13,654 (19,163) 3.3 (8.9) 242 8,526 (14,211) 1.8 (6.0)
   TIA/other CVA 62 9,045 (21,836) 1.4 (4.2) 284 4,400 (10,622) 0.8 (3.8)
   PVD 2 10,119 (10,258) 0.0 (0.0) 22 6,678 (14,186) 1.2 (2.6)
  1. CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CV, cardiovascular; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; IHD, ischemic heart disease; LOS, length of stay; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; TIA, transient ischemic attack.
  2. *Follow-up cardiovascular event may be categorized into multiple events if it had both a cardiovascular diagnosis and procedure. History of diabetes in the pre-index period. Costs are incremental to that of the index cardiovascular hospitalization and given as mean (SD) per patient in US$. §Length of stay is mean (SD) in days.
  3. **For t-test comparisons of all CV event patients with vs. without diabetes after 1 year cost of hospitalization: P < 0.0001, hospital length of stay: P < 0.0001; ††after 2 years, cost of hospitalization: P < 0.0001, hospital length of stay: P < 0.0001; ‡‡after 3 years, cost of hospitalization: P = 0.0002, hospital length of stay: P < 0.0001.