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Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the study cohort overall and by diabetic status

From: Incremental cardiovascular costs and resource use associated with diabetes: an assessment of 29,863 patients in the US managed-care setting

Parameter All Patients
(n = 29,863)
Patients with Diabetes*
(n = 5,501)
Patients without Diabetes*
(n = 24,362)
P-value
Age, mean (SD), years 55.54 (12.05) 57.83 (11.00) 55.03 (12.22) < 0.0001
Female, n (%) 11,097 (37.2) 2,316 (42.1) 8,781 (36.0) < 0.0001
Follow-up, mean (SD), days 694 (348) 687 (353) 695 (347) 0.12
Plan type, n (%)     < 0.0001
   HMO 12,167 (40.7) 2,444 (44.4) 9,723 (39.9)  
   PPO 11,356 (38.0) 1,941 (35.3) 9,415 (38.6)  
   Unknown 306 (1.0) 48 (0.9) 258 (1.1)  
Plan payer type, n (%)     < 0.0001
   Commercial 22,270 (74.6) 3,841 (69.8) 18,429 (75.6)  
   Medicare risk 4,199 (14.1) 974 (17.7) 3,225 (13.2)  
   Unknown 1,587 (5.3) 222 (4.0) 1,365 (5.6)  
CCI, mean (SD) 0.56 (1.12) 1.61 (1.22) 0.32 (0.94) < 0.0001
Pre-index comorbidities, n (%)     
   Hypertension 11,648 (39.0) 3,408 (62.0) 8,240 (33.8) < 0.0001
   Dyslipidemia 8,976 (30.1) 2,642 (48.0) 6,334 (26.0) < 0.0001
   Diabetes 5,501 (18.4) 5,501 (100.0) 0 (0.0) -
Pre-index medications, n (%)     
   Statins 4,749 (15.9) 1,708 (31.0) 3,041 (12.5) < 0.0001
   ACE inhibitors 4,027 (13.5) 1,805 (32.8) 2,222 (9.1) < 0.0001
   ARBs 1,316 (4.4) 473 (8.6) 843 (3.5) < 0.0001
   β-blockers 4,045 (13.5) 1,086 (19.7) 2,959 (12.1) < 0.0001
   Calcium channel blockers 3,070 (10.3) 970 (17.6) 2,100 (8.6) < 0.0001
   Diuretics 2,919 (9.8) 849 (15.4) 2,070 (8.5) < 0.0001
Index CV event type     
   CABG 1,904 (6.4) 412 (7.5) 1,492 (6.1) 0.0002
   Other CV procedure 8,613 (28.8) 1,417 (25.8) 7,196 (29.5) < 0.0001
   Myocardial infarction 9,231 (30.9) 1,420 (25.8) 7,811 (32.1) < 0.0001
   Heart failure 2,244 (7.5) 686 (12.5) 1,558 (6.4) < 0.0001
   Angina 1,651 (5.5) 315 (5.7) 1,336 (5.5) 0.48
   Other IHD 11,258 (37.7) 2,011 (36.6) 9,247 (38.0) 0.053
   Ischemic stroke 2,634 (8.8) 552 (10.0) 2,082 (8.5) 0.0004
   TIA/other CVA 2,324 (7.8) 395 (7.2) 1,929 (7.9) 0.07
   PVD 164 (0.5) 38 (0.7) 126 (0.5) 0.12
  1. ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CV, cardiovascular; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; HMO, Health Maintenance Organization; IHD, ischemic heart disease; PPO, Preferred Provider Organization; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; TIA, transient ischemic attack.
  2. *History of diabetes in the pre-index period. Index hospitalization may be categorized into multiple events if it had both a cardiovascular diagnosis and procedure. P-values for comparison of patients with vs. without diabetes; χ2 test for categorical variables, and t-test for continuous variables