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Table 1 Key processes in restenosis in diabetics; the processes are specified to the elevated (↑) or decreased (↓) factors contributing to the elevated risk of restenosis in diabeticscompared to non-diabetics.

From: The role of glucose lowering agents on restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with diabetes mellitus

Influence of 4 Key Factors on Restenosis in Diabetics
Process Factor
Proinflammatory state ↑ C-peptide
  ↑ Resistin
  ↑ CRP
  ↑ Il-12
Prothrombotic state ↑ P2Y-receptor
  ↑ Endothelial damage by O2-radicals
Accelerated and unstable plaque formation ↑ Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
  ↑ Macrophage infiltration
  ↑ Lipid-rich
  ↑ Collagen-rich
  ↑ Vaso vasorum neovascularization
Haemodynamics ↓ Vessel lumen diameter
  ↑ Multivessel disease
  ↑ Viscosity