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Table 6 Exploratory analyses

From: Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

  Bivariate correlation P* Pearson correlation r Linear regression P§ Adjusted R2
ΔHbA1C versus outcome variables     
   ΔWaist circumference (cm) 0.03 0.6 0.03 0.31
ΔHbA1C versus dietary variables     
   ΔPotassium (mg) 0.03 0.6 0.03 0.32
   ΔFruits (g) 0.04 0.6 NS  
   ΔSauce (g) 0.04 -0.6 NS  
   ΔMilk/milk products (g) 0.05 0.6 NS  
ΔHDL versus outcome variables     
   ΔCholesterol (mmol/l) 0.03 0.6 0.03 0.32
ΔHDL versus dietary variables     
   ΔFatty acid C20:5, n-3, EPA (g) 0.004 -0.7 0.004 0.51
   ΔVitamin C, Ascorbic acid (mg) 0.02 -0.6 NS  
ΔTG versus outcome variables     
   No correlations     
ΔTG versus dietary variables     
   ΔVitamin B-1, Thiamin (mg) 0.03 0.6 0.03 0.29
ΔDBP versus outcome variables     
   ΔHOMA2 IR 0.004 -0.7 0.01 0.67
   ΔSBP (mmHg) 0.03 0.6 0.03  
   ΔfP-insulin (pmol/l) 0.004 -0.7 NS  
   ΔHOMA2 %S 0.01 0.7 NS  
   ΔAUC insulin0–120 (nmol/l·min) 0.01 -0.7 NS  
ΔDBP versus dietary variables     
   ΔDietary cholesterol (mg) 0.001 0.8 0.001 0.60
   ΔFatty acid C16:1 (g) 0.002 0.8 NS  
   ΔFatty acid C22:6, n-3, DHA (g) 0.01 0.7 NS  
   ΔFatty acid C20:5, n-3, EPA (g) 0.02 0.6 NS  
   ΔEggs (g) 0.03 0.6 NS  
ΔWeight versus outcome variables     
   ΔCRP (mg/l) 0.000005 0.9 0.001 0.85
   ΔBMI (kg/m2) 0.00002 0.9 NE  
   ΔWaist circumference (cm) 0.0001 0.9 NS  
   ΔISI0,120 (mg·l2/mmol·mU·min) 0.001 -0.8 NS  
ΔWeight versus dietary variables     
   ΔEnergy density per meal (kJ/g) 0.00003 -0.9 0.00003 0.79
   ΔVitamin E (mg) 0.01 -0.7 NS  
   ΔVegetables (g) 0.01 0.7 NS  
   ΔFatty acid C18:1 (g) 0.02 -0.6 NS  
ΔBMI versus outcome variables     
   ΔWeight (kg) 0.00002 0.9 NE  
   ΔWaist circumference (cm) 0.001 0.8 0.001 0.63
   ΔCRP (mg/l) 0.001 0.8 NS  
   ΔISI0,120 (mg·l2/mmol·mU·min) 0.003 -0.8 NS  
ΔBMI versus dietary variables     
   ΔEnergy density per meal (kJ/g) 0.0004 -0.8 0.0004 0.67
   ΔVitamin E (mg) 0.004 -0.7 NS  
   ΔVegetables (g) 0.01 0.7 NS  
   ΔFatty acid C18:1 (g) 0.01 -0.7 NS  
   ΔFat (g) 0.02 -0.6 NS  
   ΔFatty acid C18:2, n-6, Linoleic acid (g) 0.047 -0.6 NS  
ΔWaist circumference versus outcome variables     
   ΔWeight (kg) 0.0001 0.9 0.0001 0.74
   ΔBMI (kg/m2) 0.001 0.8 NS  
   ΔCRP (mg/l) 0.001 0.8 NS  
   ΔISI0,120 (mg·l2/mmol·mU·min) 0.002 -0.8 NS  
   ΔHbA1C (%) 0.03 0.6 NS  
ΔWaist circumference versus dietary variables     
   ΔBakery (g) 0.01 -0.7 0.006 0.92
   ΔEnergy density per meal (kJ/g) 0.001 -0.8 0.007  
   ΔSauce (g) 0.02 -0.6 0.009  
   ΔVitamin E (mg) 0.003 -0.7 0.03  
   ΔFatty acid C18:1 (g) 0.01 -0.7 NS  
   ΔVitamin E, Alpha-tocopherol (mg) 0.04 -0.6 NS  
  1. Exploratory analyses performed on outcome variables with significant effects from Paleolithic diet compared to Diabetes diet. Analyses consisted of bivariate correlations between within-subject differences (Δ) in outcome and dietary variables. Significantly correlating variables were entered into a stepwise forward linear regression analyses. *P for bivariate correlation between variables in a two-sided t-test. §P for stepwise forward linear regression analyses entering significantly correlated variables. NS = Not Significant. NE = Weight and BMI not entered in their respective regression analysis due to calculatory relatedness.