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Table 5 Average food eaten per day during Paleolithic diet and Diabetes diet (mean ± SD)

From: Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

  Paleolithic Diabetes P*
Total weight (g) 1445 ± 367 1456 ± 312 0.9
Total energy (MJ) 6.6 ± 1.2 7.9 ± 1.6 0.005
(kcal) 1581 ± 295 1878 ± 379 0.005
Energy density (kJ/g) 4.7 ± 0.7 5.6 ± 1.1 0.02
Protein (g) 94 ± 18 90 ± 14 0.5
(E%) 24 ± 3 20 ± 4 0.0001
Carbohydrate (g) 125 ± 43 196 ± 61 0.00001
(E%) 32 ± 7 42 ± 7 0.0001
Fat (g) 68 ± 11 72 ± 20 0.6
(E%) 39 ± 5 34 ± 6 0.04
Alcohol (g) 6.3 ± 8.9 3.6 ± 5.6 0.2
(E%) 3 ± 4 1 ± 2 0.08
Fiber (g) 21 ± 8 26 ± 8 0.02
(E%) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.7 0.4
Glycemic Load (g) 63 ± 23 111 ± 41 0.00002
Glycemic Index 50 ± 5 55 ± 6 0.01
Monosaccharides (g) 46 ± 21 33 ± 16 0.03
Disaccharides(g) 31 ± 14 39 ± 15 0.10
Sucrose (g) 29 ± 13 30 ± 12 0.8
Saturated fatty acid (g) 19 ± 5 27 ± 9 0.002
Monounsaturated fatty acid(g) 30 ± 6 26 ± 7 0.13
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g) 14 ± 4 12 ± 4 0.2
Fatty acid C4:0-C10:0 (g) 0.3 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 1.3 0.0001
Fatty acid C12:0 (g) 0.3 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.8 0.002
Fatty acid C14:0 (g) 1.3 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 1.3 0.0002
Fatty acid C16:0 (g) 12 ± 3 14 ± 4 0.02
Fatty acid C16:1 (g) 2.0 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.6 0.03
Fatty acid C18:0 (g) 4.5 ± 1.5 5.9 ± 1.9 0.053
Fatty acid C18:1, oleic acid (g) 26 ± 6 24 ± 7 0.3
Fatty acid C18:2, n-6, Linoleic acid (g) 9 ± 4 8 ± 3 0.6
Fatty acid C18:3, n-3, ALA (g) 1.5 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 0.8 0.6
Fatty acid C20:0 (g) 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.2
Fatty acid C20:4, n-6 (g) 0.2 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.01
Fatty acid C20:5, n-3, EPA (g) 0.6 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.3 0.052
Fatty acid C22:5, n-3 (g) 0.2 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.3
Fatty acid C22:6, n-3, DHA (g) 1.3 ± 0.7 0.7 ± 0.7 0.06
Cholesterol (mg) 577 ± 107 365 ± 88 0.0003
Vitamin A, Retinolequivalents (μg) 896 ± 534 1139 ± 450 0.2
Vitamin A, Retinol (μg) 385 ± 333 673 ± 353 0.051
Vitamin A, Caroten (μg) 5038 ± 3414 4811 ± 5633 0.9
Vitamin D (μg) 9 ± 4 9 ± 7 0.9
Vitamin E (mg) 13 ± 4 11 ± 3 0.07
Vitamin E, Alpha-tocopherol (mg) 13 ± 4 11 ± 3 0.07
Vitamin B-1, Thiamin (mg) 1.5 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.5 0.8
Vitamin B-2, Riboflavin (mg) 1.6 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.2 0.5
Vitamin B-6 (mg) 3.2 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.6 0.003
Vitamin B-12 (μg) 8.6 ± 4.0 6.7 ± 2.4 0.2
Vitamin B, Folate (μg) 340 ± 172 300 ± 79 0.4
Vitamin C, Ascorbic acid (mg) 219 ± 136 119 ± 60 0.03
Niacinequivalents (mg) 45 ± 11 39 ± 8 0.08
Niacin (mg) 27 ± 8 22 ± 6 0.03
Phosphorus (mg) 1233 ± 247 1437 ± 208 0.02
Iron (mg) 12 ± 3 12 ± 3 1.0
Potassium (mg) 3669 ± 982 3181 ± 908 0.0497
Calcium (mg) 356 ± 102 698 ± 220 0.00002
Magnesium (mg) 307 ± 84 311 ± 68 0.9
Sodium (mg) 2530 ± 924 2963 ± 678 0.14
Selenium (μg) 81 ± 20 55 ± 18 0.001
Zinc (mg) 11 ± 3 12 ± 2 0.3
Ash (g) 17 ± 4 19 ± 4 0.13
Water (g) 1113 ± 306 1049 ± 258 0.5
Fruits (g) 451 ± 200 251 ± 210 0.005
Vegetables (g) 346 ± 179 241 ± 176 0.0497
Potatoes (g) 49 ± 51 106 ± 84 0.03
Nuts (g) 29 ± 24 12 ± 20 0.13
Meat (g) 139 ± 67 73 ± 29 0.003
Meat products (g) 97 ± 76 71 ± 43 0.2
Fish (g) 104 ± 55 89 ± 56 0.5
Eggs (g) 71 ± 27 27 ± 24 0.001
Beans (g) 4 ± 14 24 ± 33 0.03
Cereals without rice (g) 11 ± 24 172 ± 96 0.00004
Rice (g) 7 ± 17 6 ± 10 0.9
Milk/milk products (g) 16 ± 32 183 ± 123 0.0002
Oil (g) 0.3 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 3.5 0.3
Sauce (g) 13 ± 20 30 ± 36 0.2
Bakery (g) 10 ± 18 34 ± 35 0.005
Jam (g) 0 ± 0 12 ± 22 0.07
Spirits (g) 1.0 ± 2.8 1.4 ± 4.1 0.8
Wine (g) 52 ± 83 20 ± 49 0.14
Beer (g) 31 ± 103 55 ± 80 0.4
Sweet beverages (g) 0 ± 0 38 ± 64 0.051
Juice (g) 12 ± 35 10 ± 26 0.6
  1. Average food eaten per day during Paleolithic diet and Diabetes diet (mean ± SD). Estimated from 4 day weighed food records. *P for difference between diets in a two-sided t-test with dependent samples. E% = percent energy from total macronutrient energy.