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Table 4 Period effects on cardiovascular risk factors after 3 and 6 months in all 13 subjects combined (mean ± SD)

From: Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

  Baseline 3 months 6 months P*
HbA1C (%, Mono-S) 6.6 ± 0.6 5.9 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 0.6 0.10
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.4 ± 1.1 4.4 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 1.3 0.6
LDL (mmol/l) 2.9 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 1.0 0.5
HDL (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 0.9
TG (mmol/l) 1.5 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.7 1.2 ± 0.5 0.5
CRP (mg/l) 2.4 ± 1.8 2.8 ± 2.5 1.8 ± 1.0 0.14
SBP (mmHg) 150 ± 21 144 ± 16 145 ± 21 0.9
DBP (mmHg) 83 ± 8 80 ± 8 82 ± 8 0.4
Weight (kg) 87 ± 17 83 ± 15 82 ± 12 0.4
BMI (kg/m2) 30 ± 7 29 ± 6 28 ± 4 0.4
Waist (cm) 103 ± 14 96.8 ± 12 95 ± 9 0.5
fP-glucose (mmol/l) 7.8 ± 1.2 7.1 ± 1.6 7.3 ± 1.3 0.5
fP-insulin (pmol/l) 98 ± 44 74 ± 28 63 ± 21 0.2
AUC glucose (mmol/l·min) 1607 ± 218 1438 ± 350 1437 ± 329 1.0
AUC glucose (mmol/l·min)1 667 ± 186 583 ± 189 558 ± 219 0.6
AUC insulin (nmol/l·min) 30 ± 12 29 ± 12 23 ± 14 0.01
AUC insulin (nmol/l·min)1 18 ± 8 21 ± 11 16 ± 13 0.01
ISI0,120 (mg·l2/mmol·mU·min) 40 ± 9 50 ± 16 56 ± 25 0.2
HOMA2 %B 65 ± 34 65 ± 27 53 ± 18 0.04
HOMA2 %S 59 ± 27 80 ± 42 87 ± 28 0.6
HOMA2 IR 2.0 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.4 0.2
Diabetic values at OGTT yes/no (n) 12/1 8/5 9/4 1.0
  1. *P for difference between 3 and 6 months in a two-sided t-test with dependent samples, except for Diabetic values at OGTT where P is for difference between diets in Fischer's two-sided exact test with related samples. 1stimulated secretion, area under curve at OGTT with value at 0 minutes as baseline.