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Table 3 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease after Paleolithic diet and Diabetes diet (mean ± SD, Confidence Interval 95%)

From: Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

  Paleolithic diet P* Diabetes diet P** Delta diets1 P***
HbA1C (%, Mono-S) 5.5 ± 0.7, 5.1 to 5.9 0.0001 5.9 ± 0.9, 5.5 to 6.4 0.001 -0.4 0.02
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.3 ± 1.2, 3.6 to 4.9 0.6 4.5 ± 1.2, 3.8 to 5.1 0.7 -0.2 0.3
LDL (mmol/l) 2.7 ± 1.0, 2.1 to 3.2 0.3 2.8 ± 1.1, 2.2 to 3.4 0.6 -0.1 0.5
HDL (mmol/l) 1.34 ± 0.30, 1.18 to 1.51 0.2 1.26 ± 0.23, 1.14 to 1.39 0.7 0.08 0.03
TG (mmol/l) 1.0 ± 0.5, 0.8 to 1.3 0.003 1.5 ± 0.7, 1.1 to 1.8 0.7 -0.4 0.003
CRP (mg/l) 2.0 ± 1.6, 1.1 to 2.9 0.2 2.6 ± 2.3, 1.4 to 3.8 0.8 -0.6 0.4
SBP (mmHg) 140 ± 12, 134 to 147 0.048 149 ± 22, 137 to 161 0.7 -8 0.13
DBP (mmHg) 79 ± 6, 76 to 82 0.06 83 ± 9, 78 to 88 0.7 -4 0.03
Weight (kg) 81 ± 13, 74 to 88 0.005 84 ± 15, 76 to 92 0.052 -3 0.01
BMI (kg/m2) 28 ± 5, 25 to 30 0.01 29 ± 6, 26 to 32 0.03 -1 0.04
Waist (cm) 94 ± 9, 89 to 99 0.01 98 ± 11, 92 to 104 0.02 -4 0.02
fP-glucose (mmol/l) 7.0 ± 1.4, 6.2 to 7.8 0.01 7.5 ± 1.4, 6.7 to 8.2 0.2 -0.5 0.08
fP-insulin (pmol/l) 69 ± 30, 53 to 85 0.02 67 ± 20, 57 to 78 0.06 2 0.8
AUC glucose0–120 (mmol/l·min) 1398 ± 314, 1227 to 1568 0.01 1478 ± 358, 1283 to 1672 0.09 -80 0.2
AUC glucose0–120 (mmol/l·min)2 558 ± 196, 452 to 665 0.09 582 ± 213, 467 to 698 0.2 -24 0.7
AUC insulin0–120 (nmol/l·min) 26 ± 14, 19 to 34 0.10 27 ± 13, 20 to 34 0.4 0 0.9
AUC insulin0–120 (nmol/l·min)2 18 ± 13, 11 to 25 0.9 19 ± 11, 12 to 25 0.8 -1 0.7
ISI0,120 (mg·l2/mmol·mU·min) 56 ± 22, 44 to 68 0.02 50 ± 20, 40 to 61 0.052 6 0.2
HOMA2 %B 63 ± 27, 48 to 77 0.6 55 ± 19, 44 to 66 0.2 8 0.2
HOMA2 %S 89 ± 45, 64 to 113 0.02 79 ± 23, 66 to 91 0.04 10 0.4
HOMA2 IR 1.4 ± 0.6, 1.1 to 1.7 0.01 1.4 ± 0.4, 1.1 to 1.6 0.052 0 0.9
Diabetic values at OGTT yes/no (n) 8/5 0.13 9/4 0.3 -1/1 1.0
  1. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease after 3 months of Paleolithic diet compared to 3 months of Diabetes diet (mean±SD, Confidence Interval 95%). 1Mean value for Paleolithic diet minus mean value for Diabetes diet. All P-values from two-sided t-test with dependent samples, except for Diabetic values at OGTT where P is for difference between diets in Fischer's two-sided exact test with related samples. *P for difference between Paleolithic diet and baseline, **P for difference between Diabetes diet and baseline and ***P for difference between diets. 2Stimulated secretion, area under curve at OGTT with value at 0 minutes as baseline.