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Table 2 Baseline differences and carry-over effects between groups with different starting diets (mean ± SD)

From: Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

  Paleolithic diet first (7 of 13) Diabetes diet first (6 of 13) P*
Baseline Individual mean for both diets Baseline Individual mean for both diets Baseline Carryover effect
Sex male/female (n) 6/1   4/2   0.6  
Age (year) 66 ± 6   63 ± 6   0.3  
Diabetes duration (year) 6 ± 4   11 ± 6   0.13  
Diabetic values at OGTT yes/no (n) 6/1   6/0   1.0  
Lipid lowering drug (= statin) yes/no (n) 4/3   4/2   1.0  
Drugs per day 4.9 ± 2.7   3.7 ± 1.8   0.4  
Anti-hypertensive drugs per day 1.9 ± 1.7   1.2 ± 1.2   0.4  
   Beta-blocker yes/no (n) 3/7   1/6   1.0  
   Thiazide yes/no (n) 3/7   1/6   1.0  
   ACE-inhibitor yes/no (n) 3/7   2/6   1.0  
   Angiotensin-II receptor blocker yes/no (n) 2/7   2/6   1.0  
   Calcium channel blocker yes/no (n) 2/7   1/7   1.0  
Anti-diabetic drugs per day 0.9 ± 0.9   1.5 ± 0.8   0.2  
   Metformin yes/no (n) 4/7   5/6   1.0  
   Sulfonylurea yes/no (n) 1/7   2/6   1.0  
   Thiazolidinedione yes/no (n) 1/7   2/6   1.0  
Metformin per day (mg) 814 ± 790   1283 ± 950   0.4  
HbA1C (%, Mono-S) 6.2 ± 0.2 5.4 ± 0.5 6.9 ± 0.7 6.2 ± 0.7 0.06 0.04
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.2 ± 1.3 4.4 ± 1.4 4.7 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 0.9 0.5 0.9
LDL (mmol/l) 2.7 ± 1.0 2.78 ± 1.25 3.0 ± 0.8 2.67 ± 0.65 0.6 0.8
HDL (mmol/l) 1.28 ± 0.25 1.36 ± 0.27 1.28 ± 0.19 1.24 ± 0.26 1.0 0.4
TG (mmol/l) 1.4 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 0.7 0.5 0.3
CRP (mg/l) 2.9 ± 2.2 2.2 ± 1.6 1.9 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 1.5 0.4 0.9
SBP (mmHg) 156 ± 23 148 ± 14 144 ± 18 141 ± 17 0.3 0.4
DBP (mmHg) 83 ± 11 80 ± 8 84 ± 9 82 ± 7 0.8 0.6
Height (cm) 172 ± 4   170 ± 6   0.6  
Weight (kg) 82 ± 13 77 ± 11 92 ± 20 88 ± 15 0.3 0.2
BMI (kg/m2) 28 ± 4 26 ± 3 32 ± 8 31 ± 6 0.3 0.14
Waist (cm) 97 ± 9 92 ± 8 109 ± 17 101 ± 10 0.2 0.10
fP-glucose (mmol/l) 7.1 ± 0.7 6.6 ± 1.1 8.6 ± 1.2 8.0 ± 1.3 0.02 0.052
fP-insulin (pmol/l) 118 ± 53 64 ± 19 75 ± 12 73 ± 23 0.07 0.5
AUC glucose0–120 (mmol/l·min) 1498 ± 227 1321 ± 310 1734 ± 128 1574 ± 289 0.046 0.2
AUC glucose0–120 (mmol/l·min)1 642 ± 165 534 ± 205 698 ± 219 613 ± 155 0.6 0.5
AUC insulin0–120 (nmol/l·min) 35 ± 13 29 ± 11 24 ± 8 24 ± 15 0.13 0.5
AUC insulin0–120 (nmol/l·min)1 20 ± 8 21 ± 10 15 ± 9 15 ± 13 0.3 0.4
ISI0,120 (mg·l2/mmol·mU·min) 44 ± 11 55 ± 21 36 ± 3 52 ± 19 0.11 0.8
HOMA2 %B 83 ± 36 67 ± 23 43 ± 11 49 ± 15 0.03 0.14
HOMA2 %S 54 ± 35 92 ± 30 65 ± 12 74 ± 25 0.4 0.3
HOMA2 IR 2.4 ± 1.0 1.3 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.5 0.09 0.3
  1. Baseline differences and carry-over effects between groups randomized to start with Paleolithic diet first or Diabetes diet first (mean ± SD). Carry-over effect tested for on individual means for both diets ((Paleolithic diet plus Diabetes diet)/2). *P for difference between groups with different starting diets in a two-sided t-test with independent samples, except for categorically reported values for sex, diabetic values at OGTT and drug treatment (e.g. lipid lowering drug), where P is for difference in Fisher's exact two-sided test with independent samples. 1stimulated secretion, area under curve at OGTT with value at 0 minutes as baseline.