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Table 1 Baseline clinical and biochemical characteristics of 7074 Chinese Type 2 diabetic patients without clinical evidence of coronary heart disease and heart failure at enrollment during 5.52 years of follow-up in the training dataset and the test dataset

From: Development and validation of a risk score for hospitalization for heart failure in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  Training dataset (n = 3456) Test dataset (n = 3611)
  median or % IQR* median or % IQR*
Male Gender 45.2%   45.6%  
Smoking status     
   Current smoker 20.4%   20.7%  
   Ex smoker 13.1%   13.8%  
Age (year) 57 21 57 21
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.6 4.8 24.7 5.0
Years of diagnosed diabetes 5 10 5 9
Systolic BP (mmHg) 134 27 134 28
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 76 13 76 15
HbA1c (%) 7.3 2.2 7.4 2.2
Blood haemoglobin (g/L) 13.8 2.1 13.8 2.2
White blood cell count (109/counts/L) 7.0 2.4 7.0 2.4
Spot urinary albumin creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 2.0 10.1 2.0 10.0
eGFR (ml min-1 1.73 m-2) ξ 104.9 43.0 104.9 43.5
LDL-C (mmol/l) 3.13 1.24 3.11 1.29
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.24 0.45 1.25 0.45
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.37 1.08 1.39 1.12
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.87 1.40 3.87 1.43
Drug use at baseline     
On diet treatment 10.2%   9.9%  
Use of oral anti-diabetic drugs 61.0%   60.6%  
Use of anti-hypertensive drugs 34.1%   33.3%  
Use of insulin 17.5%   17.4%  
Use of LLD§ 11.6%   13.2%  
Use of ACEI or ARB¶ 20.4%   20.1%  
Complications at baseline     
Retinopathy 25.4%   27.4%  
Sensory neuropathy 26.0%   25.7%  
Peripheral arterial disease 5.8%   5.9%  
History of stroke 3.6%   4.4%  
Complications during follow-up     
Coronary heart disease before heart failure during follow-up 4.4%   4.4%  
Heart failure hospitalisation during follow-up 3.8%   4.0%  
Death during follow-up 9.4%   9.9%  
  1. *, Median (IQR = interquartile range); ξ, eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; §, LLD, lipid lowering drugs; ¶, ACEI, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and ARB for angiotensin II receptor blockers.