Structure and functions of PPARs. (A) Functional domains of PPARs. DBD = DNA binding domain; LBD = ligand binding domain. Numbers denote residue identity in percent compared to PPARα. (B) LBD of PPARs. PPARα-LBD (PDB ID; 1I7G, chain A) is shown with secondary structures; helices in cylindrical form (H: red), β-strands (S: green), 3–10 helix (light blue) and loops (cyan). The blue object shows ligand binding pocket. (C) Ligand-dependent activation of PPARs.