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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study subjects stratified according to the presence (MetS+) or not (MetS-) of metabolic syndrome

From: Metabolic syndrome is not associated with reduction in aortic distensibility in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  MetS (-) MetS (+) p
n (%) 74 (35.2) 136 (64.8) -
Males/females n (%) 35 (52.7)/39 (47.3) 72 (52.9)/64 (47.1) 0.98
Age (years) 59.9 ± 7.4 60.8 ± 8.4 0.43
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.6 ± 4.8 28.8 ± 5.78 0.12
Waist (cm) 94.8 ± 11.1 103.9 ± 11.5 <0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.91 ± 0.08 0.95 ± 0.069 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 128.2 ± 22.7 142.9 ± 18.4 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 74.38 ± 12.66 81.05 ± 11.32 <0.001
Pulse pressure (mm Hg) 53.8 ± 17.0 61.2 ± 15.8 0.008
Glucose (mmol/l) 9.37 ± 3.46 9.12 ± 2.68 0.63
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.55 ± 1.14 5.67 ± 1.29 0.52
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.33 ± 0.33 1.03 ± 0.22 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.66 ± 1.03 3.71 ± 1.09 0.91
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.14 ± 0.42 1.98 ± 1.04 <0.001
GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 99.7 ± 26.8 107.5 ± 38.9 0.35
HOMA-IR* 3.7 (2.5–6.1) 4.9 (3.2–8.3) 0.10
Duration of diabetes (years) 10.28 ± 5.93 11.53 ± 8.78 0.31
HbA1c (%) 7.78 ± 1.68 7.55 ± 1.74 0.35
Hypertension (yes) n (%) 25 (47.2) 69 (68.3) 0.03
CAD (yes) n (%) 4 (8) 12 (12.9) 0.24
Use of stains (yes) n (%) 9 (12.2) 35 (25.7) 0.02
Any retinopathy (yes) n (%) 5 (6.8) 19 (14.5) 0.08
Microalbuminuria (yes) n (%) 16 (32) 47 (51.1) 0.01
Treatment for diabetes n (%) 0.49
   Diet alone 8 (10.8) 22 (16.4)  
   Antidiabetic tablets 54 (73) 88 (65.7)  
   Insulin 12 (16.2) 24 (17.9)  
  1. *Median values (interquartile range). p values for the comparison between groups with and without metabolic syndrome by independent samples t-test for continuous variables, Mann-Whitney U test for ordinal data or by Pearson χ2 for nominal variables.
  2. HDL: high density lipoprotein; LDL: low density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; GFR: glomerular filtration rate; CAD: coronary artery disease.