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Table 1 Demographic and Metabolic Syndrome Characteristics by Age Group

From: Utility of the modified ATP III defined metabolic syndrome and severe obesity as predictors of insulin resistance in overweight children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic* Ages 3–8
n = 122
Age 9–11
n = 164
Ages 12–19
n = 290
Total
n = 576
p value
Female (%) 55.7 53.0 53.1 53.6 .87
Ethnicity (%)      .92
African American 79.5 81.7 82.1 81.4  
Hispanic 17.2 15.2 15.9 16.0  
Other 3.3 3.0 2.1 2.6  
Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2) 26.8 ± 4.7 31.0 ± 5.5 37.1 ± 7.2 33.2 ± 7.6 <.001
Age-sex standardized Body Mass Index 2.8 ± 0.71 2.4 ± 0.42 2.4 ± 0.36 2.5 ± 0.50 <.001
(BMIZ) (standardized units)      
Glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL (%) 2.5 4.3 3.8 3.6 .71
Elevated Waist Circumference (%) 94.3 95.1 85.9 90.3 .001
High Density Lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (%) 39.3 45.7 50.0 46.5 .14
Elevated Triglycerides (%) 34.4 47.0 29.0 35.2 .001
Hypertension (%) 64.8 53.7 59.0 58.7 .17
Metabolic syndrome (%) 45.1 48.8 42.4 44.6 .49
Glucose (mg/dL) 80 ± 10.5 83 ± 11.1 85 ± 20.3 83 ± 16.4 .02
Waist Circumference (cm) 80 ± 11.4 95 ± 12.5 108 ± 15.7 98 ± 17.7 <.001
High Density Lipoprotein (mg/dL) 46 ± 11.5 43 ± 10.5 41 ± 9.4 43 ± 10.3 <.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 83 ± 33.9 95 ± 41.4 98 ± 54.3 94 ± 47.4 .01
Blood pressure (mmHg)      
   Systolic 114 ± 10.7 118 ± 9.4 125 ± 10.9 121 ± 11.4 <.001
   Diastolic 65 ± 8.2 69 ± 8.2 73 ± 8.9 70 ± 9.2 <.001
  1. * Values are presented as % for categorical variables and mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables. P values for comparison by age assessed by chi-square for categorical variables and analysis of variance for continuous variables. All continuous variables had p < .01 for linear trend.
  2. ≥ 90th percentile for age and sex.
  3. By modified ATP criteria: abnormal values for 3 or more of waist circumference, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, hypertension and glucose.