Skip to main content

Table 2 Hazard ratios of significant baseline risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetic patients (Model 1) before and after inclusion of eGFR and ACR into the model.

From: Impacts of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria on associations between coronary heart disease and its traditional risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients – the Hong Kong diabetes registry

Vaseline variables Model 1† Model 1 plus eGFR‡ Model 1 plus eGFR & ACR¶
Hazard ratio (95% CI) p- value Hazard ratio (95% CI) p- value Hazard ratio (95% CI) p- value
Age (year):
<45 vs. 45–59 0.48 (0.28–0.81) 0.006 0.51 (0.30–0.86) 0.012 0.50 (0.29–0.84) 0.010
≥60 vs. 45–59 1.75 (1.31–2.33) <0.001 1.56 (1.16–2.09) 0.003 1.53 (1.14–2.06) 0.005
Female sex 0.64 (0.47–0.88) 0.006 0.66 (0.48–0.91) 0.010 0.69 (0.50–0.95) 0.023
Smoking status:
Ex-smoking vs. never 1.21 (0.84–1.76) 0.311 1.18 (0.81–1.71) 0.384 1.13 (0.78–1.64) 0.5202
Current vs. never 1.64 (1.15–2.33) 0.007 1.63 (1.15–2.33) 0.007 1.58 (1.11–2.26) 0.011
Duration of diabetes (year):
<5 vs. ≥13 0.43 (0.30–0.61) <0.001 0.45 (0.31–0.64) <0.001 0.49 (0.34–0.71) <0.001
5–12 vs. ≥13 0.71 (0.53–0.97) 0.028 0.74 (0.54–1.00) 0.048 0.78 (0.58–1.06) 0.118
Blood haemoglobin (g/dL):
<12.5 vs. ≥12.5 g/dL 1.58 (1.16–2.15) 0.004 1.35 (0.98–1.87) 0.067 1.22 (0.88–1.69) 0.238
HDL-C (mmol/L):
<0.80 vs. 0.80–1.39 0.41 (0.18–0.93) 0.033 0.39 (0.17–0.88) 0.024 0.40 (0.18–0.90) 0.027
≥1.40 vs. 0.80–1.39 0.52 (0.38–0.70) <0.001 0.54 (0.39–0.73) <0.001 0.56 (0.41–0.76) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.22 (1.11–1.36) <0.001 1.20 (1.08–1.32) <0.001 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 0.045
Use of ACEI or ARB 1.72 (1.29–2.31) <0.001 1.59 (1.18–2.13) 0.002 1.44 (1.06–1.94) 0.018
Use of insulin 1.34 (0.99–1.81) 0.056 1.26 (0.93–1.70) 0.136 1.15 (0.85–1.56) 0.372
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2):
<60 vs. ≥90 / / 1.90 (1.27–2.84) 0.002 1.37 (0.89–2.10) 0.152
60–89.9 vs. ≥90 / / 1.51 (1.12–2.06) 0.008 1.36 (0.99–1.85) 0.055
Urinary ACR (mg/mmol)ξ
Microalbuminuria / / / / 1.34 (0.97–1.85) 0.075
Macroalbuminuria / / / / 1.76 (1.19–2.58) 0.043
ACR ≥150 mg/mmol / / / / 2.64 (1.69–4.12) <0.001
  1. eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACR, albumin: creatinine ratio; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; ACEI, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers ξ, Microalbuminuria is defined as ACR≥2.5 mg/mmol in male and ≥3.5 mg/mmol in female but <25 mg/mmol in both genders; macroalbuminuria here is defined as ≥25 mg/mmol but <150 mg/mmol in both genders. †, -2log likelihood without covariates = 4108.15 and with covariates = 3909.48; ‡, -2log likelihood with covariates = 3897.88; ¶, -2log likelihood with covariates = 3879.21.