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Table 1 Distribution of selected clinical and metabolic factors across categories of impaired glucose regulation

From: Diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid/femoral intima-media thickness independently of markers of insulin resistance and adiposity

Variable NFG IFG/NGT IFG/IGT DM z-trend*
Men      
Clinical and metabolic data (n) 316 98 73 81 8.1
   Age (years) 42.5 ± 0.6 45.1 ± 0.9 49.3 ± 1.1 52.7 ± 1.0 5.9
   Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.6 ± 0.3 26.6 ± 0.4 26.6 ± 0.5 27.7 ± 0.6 8.2
   Waist circumference (cm) 85.8 ± 0.6 92.5 ± 1.0 93.0 ± 1.4 97.5 ± 1.3 7.8
   Serum fasting insulin (pmol/l) 10.8 ± 0.4 14.2 ± 0.8 19.8 ± 2.4 20.9 ± 2.1 6.9
   Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.97 ± 0.03 1.20 ± 0.07 1.56 ± 0.19 1.76 ± 0.17 2.5
   LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.42 ± 0.07 3.60 ± 0.13 3.83 ± 0.14 3.75 ± 0.17 -3.8
   HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.42 ± 0.03 1.29 ± 0.05 1.27 ± 0.06 1.20 ± 0.05 8.0
   Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 ± 0.9 132 ± 1.6 137 ± 1.9 145 ± 2.3  
Mean intima-media thickness (n) 104 46 48 50 2.4
   Carotid (mm) 0.72 ± 0.01 0.71 ± 0.02 0.78 ± 0.03 0.75 ± 0.02 5.2
   Femoral (mm) 0.93 ± 0.06 0.92 ± 0.09 1.20 ± 0.10 1.41 ± 0.13 4.9
   Total (mm) 0.76 ± 0.02 0.82 ± 0.04 0.90 ± 0.03 1.04 ± 0.04  
Women      
Clinical and metabolic data (n) 460 47 77 103  
   Age (years) 41.4 ± 0.5 52.1 ± 1.4 50.1 ± 1.0 54.4 ± 0.8 11.9
   Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.1 ± 0.3 31.5 ± 0.9 31.8 ± 0.7 31.8 ± 0.5 8.4
   Waist circumference (cm) 86.7 ± 0.6 100.1 ± 2.1 97.4 ± 1.4 101.5 ± 1.1 10.7
   Serum fasting insulin (pmol/l) 13.8 ± 0.4 21.1 ± 1.9 19.4 ± 1.4 25.4 ± 2.1 8.4
   Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.82 ± 0.02 1.07 ± 0.08 1.10 ± 0.1 1.35 ± 0.08 8.8
   LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.44 ± 0.05 4.11 ± 0.19 3.81 ± 0.14 4.20 ± 0.14 5.8
   HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.40 ± 0.02 1.32 ± 0.05 1.28 ± 0.0 1.21 ± 0.04 -5.0
   Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 0.7 137 ± 3.8 134 ± 2.1 139 ± 1.9 10.3
Mean intima-media thickness (n) 155 30 45 76  
   Carotid (mm) 0.69 ± 0.01 0.75 ± 0.02 0.74 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.03 5.6
   Femoral (mm) 0.71 ± 0.03 0.88 ± 0.09 0.84 ± 0.06 1.16 ± 0.07 6.5
   Total (mm) 0.76 ± 0.02 0.82 ± 0.04 0.90 ± 0.03 1.04 ± 0.04 7.4
Overall      
Clinical and metabolic data (n) 776 145 150 184  
   Age (years) 41.8 ± 0.4 47.4 ± 0.8 49.7 ± 0.7 53.7 ± 0.6 14.3
   Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.0 ± 0.2 27.8 ± 0.4 29.0 ± 0.5 29.7 ± 0.4 9.5
   Waist circumference (cm) 86.3 ± 0.4 94.3 ± 1.0 95.1 ± 1.0 99.5 ± 0.9 13.4
   Serum fasting insulin (pmol/l) 12.5 ± 0.3 15.9 ± 0.8 19.6 ± 1.4 23.3 ± 1.5 11.1
   Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.89 ± 0.02 1.17 ± 0.05 1.35 ± 0.10 1.55 ± 0.09 11.2
   LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.43 ± 0.04 3.73 ± 0.11 3.82 ± 0.10 3.98 ± 0.11 5.8
   HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.41 ± 0.02 1.30 ± 0.04 1.27 ± 0.04 1.21 ± 0.03 -6.5
   Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 123 ± 0.6 134 ± 1.6 136 ± 1.4 142 ± 1.5 13.1
Mean intima-media thickness (n) 258 76 93 126  
   Carotid (mm) 0.71 ± 0.01 0.72 ± 0.01 0.76 ± 0.02 0.80 ± 0.02 5.9
   Femoral (mm) 0.81 ± 0.03 0.91 ± 0.07 1.04 ± 0.06 1.27 ± 0.07 8.3
   Total (mm) 0.76 ± 0.02 0.82 ± 0.04 0.90 ± 0.03 1.04 ± 0.04 8.7
  1. Values displayed are age-standardized means ± standard error.
  2. *z-value for trend; all corresponding p-values < 0.01.