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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and metabolic parameters of female subjects with type-2 diabetes, pre-diabetes and healthy control subjects

From: Serum leptin and its relation to anthropometric measures of obesity in pre-diabetic Saudis

  No diabetes Pre-diabetes Type-2 diabetes
N 35 37 45
Age (years) 43.6(11.3) 43.3(11.7) 49.0(12.6)d
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 122.8(23.1) 127.3(24.2) 123.6(18.6)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 79.4(16.5) 79.8(8.03) 80.7(10.3)
BMI (kg/m2) 30.4(6.4) 32.5(8.4) 32.5(10.3)
Waist (cm) 90.5(12.5) 91.8(13.5) 96.2(17.9)
Hips (cm) 105.3(14.1) 104.8(17.9) 106.7(20.8)
Fasting Glucose (mmol/L) 4.8(0.9) 6.1(0.4)b 14.1(5.5)b
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.2(1.3) 5.3(1.1) 6.6(1.9)b
HDL (mmol/L) 1.1(0.4) 0.9(0.4) 1.1(0.3)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.9(1.9) 1.6(0.9) 2.6(1.4)
LDL (mmol/L) 3.5(1.4) 3.6(1.1)d 4.4(1.5)c
Insulin (μmol/L)* 15.2(2–62) 13.5(6–26) 14.04(1–52)
Leptin ng/mL * 10.2(0.25–34.8) 14.09(2.8–44.4)a 13.3(3.6–49.1)
APO A1 mg/dL 0.8(0.4) 0.9(0.4) 1.2(2.5)
APO A11 mg/dL 0.4(0.1) 0.4(0.1) 0.4(0.2)
HOMA IR * 3.1(0.3–12.5) 3.6(1.5–7.3) 7.8(0.6–28.4)b
  1. *Data are presented as means (SD) or as medians (interquartile range) for insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR data. The P-values shown are comparisons of metabolic characteristics for case control versus either prediabetics or patients with T2DM: a) 0.046; b) p = 0.03; c) p = 0.004; d) p < 0.001