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Figure 2 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Figure 2

From: Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice

Figure 2

Current working model for the generation of reactive species and downstream targets in diabetes. Excess generation of mitochondrial ROS due to hyperglycemia initiates a vicious circle by activating stress-sensitive pathways such as NF-κB, p38 MAPK and Jak/STAT, polyol (sorbitol) and hexosamine pathways, PKC and AGEs. Enhanced production of AGEs, sorbitol and proinflammatory cytokines exerts a positive feedback on ROS and RNS synthesis and potentiates PKC-mediated vascular dysfunction by altering gene expression as well as vascular function and structure.

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