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Table 2 Vasa vasorum: a custom delivery system

From: Vascular ossification – calcification in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and calciphylaxis – calcific uremic arteriolopathy: the emerging role of sodium thiosulfate

1. Supply the media and intima with vascular mesenchymal cells:
     a. The multipotential, stem cell-like cell to contribute to the substrate of cells to produce an osteoid matrix by morphogenic bone proteins
     b. A custom delivery system for Pi, Ca++, Glucose, Insulin, IGF-1, PTH, and other activators of bone formation
2. Substrates of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System.
3. Substrates of native LDL-cholesterol and modified LDL-cholesterol. Substrates of phospholipids from systemic circulating cells.
4. Substrates for angiogenesis. The endothelial progenitor cells, as well as, the endothelial cell and the pericyte itself via migration.
5. Supply the route for the "second wave" of inflammatory cells to the intima and vulnerable shoulder regions of the plaque, fueling the inflammatory process. The first wave originating from the endothelial luminal surface.
6. Supply the direct route for adventitial fibroblasts and TGF-beta allowing for intimal plaque expansion.