Palmitate-induced formation of pyknotic nuclei and the role of mitochondrial β-oxidation. (A) HMC were treated with palmitate (Palm) or oleate as described in Fig. 1, and the number of pyknotic nuclei were counted after 24 and 48 h in the presence of FFA. (B) HMC incubated with 0.2 mM palmitate in the presence and absence of 0.2 mM etomoxir (Etom) or 0.5 mM AICAR. Cells were also incubated with the same doses of etomoxir or AICAR alone. Data are mean ± SEM for n = 3 independent experiments in duplicate. **, P < 0.01 versus control (Con) or oleate alone (A) by Chi-square test.