Glucosamine treatment decreases the growth of SMC (A and B) but not endothelial cell (C) proliferation. Sub-confluent SMC (9 × 104/well) were incubated in growth medium or growth medium containing 2.5 mM glucosamine or 30 mM glucose for 24–48 h and cell growth was determined. (A) Initial and final cell (SMC) number was counted and net growth was determined. (B) SMC were labeled with 3H-Thymidine and its incorporation into the DNA was assessed. (C) Endothelial cell growth was determined by thymidine incorporation into DNA.