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Table 1 Hormone effects on insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function.

From: Neurohumoral stimulation in type-2-diabetes as an emerging disease concept

  Insulin Sensitivity Oxidative Stress Inflammatory response Endothelial cell function
Insulin NA ↓ [12] ? ↑ [12]
Angiotensin 2 ↓ [45] ↑ [44] ↑ [46] ↓ [49]
Aldosterone ↓ [52] ↑ [53] ↑ [53] ↓ [54]
Epinephrine ↓ [28] ↑ [37] ↑ [38] ?
Norepinephrine ↓ [28] ↑ [37] ↑ [39] ?
Endothelin 1 ↓ [62] ↑ [59], [60] ↑ [61] ↓ [58]
Leptin ↓ [22] ↑ [20] ↓ [21] ↓ [20]
  1. Consequences of hormone actions on oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and endothelial-cell dysfunction were summarized from published evidence. Arrows indicate the direction of hormone-mediated changes, question marks indicate unknown effects.