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Table 6 The manifold toxicities of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2DM.

From: Is type 2 diabetes mellitus a vascular disease (atheroscleropathy) with hyperglycemia a late manifestation? The role of NOS, NO, and redox stress.

  A-FLIGHT toxicities  
A Amylin (hyperamylinemia)/amyloid toxicity ROS
  Ang II (also induces PKC) ROS
  AGEs/AFEs (advanced Glycosylation / fructosylation products) ROS
  Antioxidant reserve compromised ROS
  Absence of antioxidant network ROS
  Ageing ROS
  Angiogenesis (induced redox stress) Arteriogenesis (impaired PAI-1) ROS
  Atherosclerosis – Atheroscleropathy. [ROS beget ROS ] ROS
F Free fatty acid toxicity ROS
L Lipotoxicity ROS
I Insulin toxicity (hyperinsulinemia-hyperproinsulinemia) (endogenous) ROS
  Inflammation toxicity ROS
G Glucotoxicity (compounds peripheral insulin resistance) reductive stress ROS plus
  Sorbitol / 'olyol pathway PKC
  Pseudohypoxia (NADH/NAD increased)  
H Hypertension toxicity ROS
  t homocysteine toxicity ROS
T Triglyceride toxicity ROS
  1. See reference [8, 9]