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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, medication use, and resource utilization 12 months before study entry among initiators of different angiotensin receptor blockers

From: Different angiotensin receptor blockers and incidence of diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study

  Losartan Valsartan Irbesartan Candesartan Telmisartan Olmesartan
Number of patients 127,383 183,486 80,845 39,430 35,017 26,369
Patient characteristics       
Age at ARBs initiation (mean ± SD) 59.55 ± 14.39 60.00 ± 14.41 59.20 ± 14.39 59.67 ± 14.35 58.82 ± 14.12 58.45 ± 14.28
Male (%) 52.64 52.88 54.12 52.88 52.67 54.96
Initiation year (%)       
2004 21.16 23.23 25.33 7.22 21.06 0.88
2005 14.87 18.52 18.68 10.06 15.53 9.15
2006 11.54 15.59 15.97 17.58 13.72 14.77
2007 12.52 14.84 14.27 21.41 16.91 20.40
2008 19.21 13.60 13.42 22.74 16.57 27.46
2009 20.71 14.23 12.33 20.99 16.20 27.34
Comorbidities (%)       
Hypertension 87.05 88.36 88.68 85.87 90.72 91.20
Ischemic heart disease 19.19 20.78 19.80 27.30 19.76 18.22
Myocardial infarction 0.91 1.03 0.90 1.24 0.76 0.53
Heart failure 5.31 6.21 5.15 8.34 3.99 3.30
Atrial fibrillation 2.37 2.19 2.18 3.06 1.35 1.21
Cerebrovascular disease 11.01 14.17 14.68 11.32 11.91 11.08
Ischemic stroke 6.08 7.72 8.06 5.91 5.88 5.74
Intracerebral hemorrhage 1.13 2.30 2.16 1.36 1.53 1.39
Peripheral vascular disease 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.04
Chronic renal failure 3.48 3.15 4.28 2.10 2.51 2.24
Chronic liver disease 10.62 10.37 10.55 10.99 10.42 10.12
Chronic lung disease 17.12 18.04 16.80 17.22 16.22 16.43
Depression 4.08 4.28 4.30 4.18 4.18 4.00
Charlson’s index (mean ± SD) 0.78 ± 1.03 0.83 ± 1.05 0.84 ± 1.06 0.78 ± 1.01 0.73 ± 0.99 0.68 ± 0.95
Number of different ICD-9 diagnoses (mean ± SD) 13.62 ± 7.69 13.74 ± 7.74 13.37 ± 7.57 13.63 ± 7.70 13.21 ± 7.54 13.21 ± 7.59
Number of cardiovascular-related diagnoses (mean ± SD) 1.60 ± 1.10 1.71 ± 1.15 1.70 ± 1.15 1.79 ± 1.15 1.66 ± 1.07 1.59 ± 1.01
Medication use (%)       
Aspirin 28.39 31.83 29.27 31.48 27.88 27.62
Clopidogrel 2.32 2.90 3.12 3.83 2.28 1.85
Warfarin 1.36 1.33 1.25 1.66 0.92 0.86
Alpha-blockers 4.99 5.04 5.50 4.30 5.24 4.97
Beta-blockers 40.82 43.54 45.64 47.42 44.46 41.56
Calcium channel blockers 56.13 59.86 61.55 60.50 60.12 62.00
Diuretics 26.63 27.82 27.89 26.65 24.85 23.47
Other anti-hypertensive agents 1.54 1.84 2.04 1.48 1.68 1.56
Nitrates 10.87 12.83 11.68 15.74 10.91 9.79
Statins 12.02 11.81 13.64 15.55 13.16 12.21
Fibrates 4.17 4.22 4.54 4.45 4.70 4.08
Digitalis glycoside 3.15 3.40 2.64 3.45 2.08 1.72
Antiarrhythmics class I and III 3.30 3.33 3.35 4.15 2.52 2.43
COX-2 non-selective NSAIDs 76.74 75.97 74.47 73.31 74.47 75.58
COX-2 selective NSAIDs 7.49 8.24 8.47 7.32 7.12 5.94
Number of different prescription drugs (mean ± SD) 24.46 ± 15.72 25.41 ± 16.34 24.48 ± 15.93 23.69 ± 15.46 23.62 ± 15.61 23.48 ± 15.32
Number of cardiovascular-related medications (mean ± SD) 3.53 ± 2.20 3.76 ± 2.32 3.79 ± 2.31 3.83 ± 2.32 3.65 ± 2.23 3.58 ± 2.20
Resource utilization (mean ± SD)       
Number of A1C measurement 0.04 ± 0.20 0.04 ± 0.19 0.05 ± 0.21 0.06 ± 0.24 0.05 ± 0.21 0.04 ± 0.21
Number of lipid-related lab test 1.12 ± 1.47 1.20 ± 1.48 1.42 ± 1.53 1.68 ± 1.59 1.47 ± 1.56 1.37 ± 1.57
Number of cardiac ultrasound examination 0.15 ± 0.42 0.17 ± 0.46 0.18 ± 0.49 0.34 ± 0.65 0.19 ± 0.47 0.15 ± 0.44
Number of outpatient visits 25.62 ± 20.22 25.40 ± 20.37 24.96 ± 19.83 25.21 ± 19.99 24.32 ± 19.51 24.38 ± 20.08
Number of emergency department visit 0.41 ± 1.01 0.49 ± 1.20 0.47 ± 1.09 0.48 ± 1.21 0.42 ± 1.00 0.43 ± 0.97
Number of cardiology outpatient visits 1.59 ± 3.67 1.73 ± 3.70 2.15 ± 4.08 3.01 ± 4.62 2.09 ± 3.96 1.69 ± 3.57
Number of cardiovascular-related physician visits 5.82 ± 6.75 6.08 ± 6.98 6.23 ± 6.85 6.35 ± 6.88 5.98 ± 6.84 5.77 ± 6.68
Coronary revascularization % 0.44 0.57 0.49 1.03 0.39 0.49
Number of hospitalizations 0.23 ± 0.63 0.29 ± 0.69 0.28 ± 0.66 0.27 ± 0.64 0.22 ± 0.61 0.25 ± 0.65
Number of hospitalizations due to cardiovascular-related diseases 0.13 ± 0.43 0.17 ± 0.48 0.16 ± 0.47 0.16 ± 0.45 0.13 ± 0.43 0.14 ± 0.44
Number of hospital days 2.47 ± 16.01 3.01 ± 16.33 2.79 ± 14.54 2.46 ± 13.96 2.15 ± 13.53 2.57 ± 17.20
Number of cardiovascular-related hospital days 1.23 ± 8.39 1.69 ± 9.61 1.61 ± 8.82 1.34 ± 6.89 1.17 ± 7.32 1.35 ± 9.37
  1. ARB: angiotensin receptor blockers.