Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Impaired relaxation despite upregulated calcium-handling protein atrial myocardium from type 2 diabetic patients with preserved ejection fraction

Clinical characteristics Non-DM (n = 36) DM (n = 20) P value
Age (years) 67 ± 1 68 ± 2 0.58
Gender (male/female) 28/8 14/6 0.52
BMI (kg/m2) 28.2 ± 0.9 33.8 ± 1.6 0.0015*
Blood glucose (mmol/L) 5.9 ± 0.3 10.0 ± 1.0 <0.0001*
HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol) 5.8 ± 0.3 (40 ± 1) 7.5 ± 1.2 (58 ± 4) 0.0011*
Diabetes duration (years) - 11.6 ± 2.7  
Diagnosed Hypertension 29/36 18/20 0.47
Echocardiography
Systolic BP (mmHg) 129 ± 3 133 ± 4 0.49
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73 ± 2 70 ± 2 0.40
Heart rate (bpm) 64 ± 1 69 ± 2 0.07
LVEDV (mL) 104 ± 3 95 ± 5 0.20
LVESV (mL) 43 ± 2 39 ± 4 0.43
SV (mL) 61 ± 2 56 ± 3 0.17
Cardiac Output (L/min) 3.8 ± 0.1 4.0 ± 0.1 0.47
Ejection Fraction (%) 60 ± 1 60 ± 2 0.86
IVSd (cm) 1.14 ± 0.04 1.26 ± 0.06 0.08
LVPWd (cm) 1.05 ± 0.03 1.15 ± 0.06 0.15
LVIDd (cm) 4.76 ± 0.09 4.72 ± 0.15 0.81
LVIDs (cm) 3.04 ± 0.10 3.04 ± 0.14 0.99
LV mass (g) 193 ± 11 217 ± 18 0.22
LV volume/mass (ml/g) 0.22 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.03 0.23
E (m/sec) 0.68 ± 0.03 0.79 ± 0.05 0.05
A (m/sec) 0.69 ± 0.03 0.80 ± 0.05 0.08
E/A 1.05 ± 0.08 0.99 ± 0.08 0.63
e' (m/sec) 0.069 ± 0.003 0.067 ± 0.004 0.63
E/e' 10.5 ± 0.8 12.6 ± 1.1 0.01*
Decel (msec) 226 ± 7 259 ± 13 0.02*
LA-2D (cm) 4.0 ± 0.1 4.1 ± 0.2 0.55
Medication
Statins 35/36 (97%) 20/20 (100%) 0.45
Beta-blockers 31/36 (86%) 15/20 (75%) 0.30
ACE inhibitors/AT blockers 19/36 (53%) 19/20 (95%) 0.0012#
Calcium Channel blocker 7/36 (19%) 8/20 (40%) 0.10
Metformin 0/36 (0%) 14/20 (70%)  
Insulin 0/36 (0%) 6/20 (30%)  
  1. BMI – body mass index; BP – blood pressure; HbA1c – glycated haemoglobin; LVEDV: left ventricular end diastolic volume; LVESV: left ventricular end systolic volume; SV: stroke volume; IVSd: interventricular septal diameter diastole; LVPWd: left ventricular posterior wall thickness end-diastole; LVIDd: left ventricular internal diameter diastole; LVIDs: left ventricular internal diameter systole; LV volume/mass: LVESV / LV mass; E: early ventricular filling velocity; e’: early ventricular myocardium relaxation velocity; A: late ventricular filling velocity; Decel: early ventricular deceleration time; LA-2D: left atrial 2-dimensional diameter. Data are mean ± SEM; For values: * = p < 0.05 vs. non-diabetic, unpaired t-test; For ratios: # = p < 0.05 vs. non-diabetic, Chi-square test.