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Table 2 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study subjects by gender

From: Subclinical vascular inflammation in subjects with normal weight obesity and its association with body Fat: an 18 F-FDG-PET/CT study

  Men p Women p
Total (N = 66) NWL (N = 33) NWO (N = 33) Total (N = 98) NWL (N = 49) NWO (N = 49)
Age (years) 56.0 ± 9.1 55.5 ± 8.8 56.4 ± 9.6 0.699 52.9 ± 9.5 51.2 ± 9.3 54.6 ± 9.4 0.071
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.3 ± 1.3 22.4 ± 1.3 24.2 ± 0.6 <0.001 22.3 ± 1.8 21.1 ± 1.5 23.5 ± 1.0 <0.001
Waist to hip ratio 0.94 ± 0.04 0.91 ± 0.04 0.97 ± 0. 02 <0.001 0.82 ± 0.05 0.79 ± 0.05 0.84 ± 0.02 <0.001
Body fat (%) 23.4 ± 4.1 20.2 ± 3.6 26.5 ± 1.0 <0.001 29.6 ± 3.8 26.6 ± 2.9 32.6 ± 1.4 <0.001
Body fat (kg) 15.5 ± 3.2 13.2 ± 2.6 17.9 ± 1.5 <0.001 16.6 ± 3.0 14.5 ± 2.5 18.7 ± 1.7 <0.001
Visceral fat (kg) 2.3 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 0.2 <0.001 1.8 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.3 <0.001
Subcutaneous fat (kg) 13.1 ± 2.6 11.3 ± 2.2 15.0 ± 1.3 <0.001 14.7 ± 2.6 13.0 ± 2.2 16.5 ± 1.5 <0.001
Muscle mass (kg) 47.0 ± 4.6 48.1 ± 4.7 45.9 ± 4.2 0.047 36.1 ± 3.1 36.6 ± 3.4 35.6 ± 2.8 0.122
Systolic BP (mmHg) 125.0 ± 13.7 122.5 ± 13.6 127.6 ± 13.4 0.134 119.8 ± 15.3 116.1 ± 14.9 123.5 ± 15.0 0.017
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 78.9 ± 8.2 77.9 ± 8.3 79.9 ± 8.2 0.319 74.6 ± 9.7 72.5 ± 9.6 76.7 ± 9.5 0.031
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.43 ± 0.66 5.09 ± 0.48 5.76 ± 0.66 <0.001 5.12 ± 0.62 4.90 ± 0.42 5.33 ± 0.71 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.7 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.6 0.245 5.6 ± 0.5 5.5 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 0.5 0.213
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.03 ± 0.95 5.14 ± 1.01 4.93 ± 0.91 0.364 5.19 ± 0.95 5.10 ± 0.84 5.29 ± 0.86 0.283
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.71 0.19 ± 0.68 1.53 ± 0.71 0.048 1.36 ± 0.71 1.19 ± 0.68 1.53 ± 0.71 0.010
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.22 ± 0.26 1.31 ± 0.29 1.12 ± 0.20 0.004 1.48 ± 0.31 1.56 ± 0.35 1.41 ± 0.24 0.016
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.14 ± 0.85 3.18 ± 0. 89 3.11 ± 0.83 0.756 3.15 ± 0.77 0.04 ± 0.75 3.26 ± 0.79 0.155
CRP (mg/L) 2.4 ± 4.50 1.8 ± 5.1 2.9 ± 4.0 0.322 1.1 ± 1.3 0.8 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 1.6 0.026
AST (IU/L) 24.9 ± 11.6 25.7 ± 14.7 24.1 ± 7.5 0.593 20.6 ± 5.7 20.0 ± 5.6 21.3 ± 5.9 0.271
ALT (IU/L) 27.9 ± 15.0 24.7 ± 12.2 31.1 ± 16.9 0.083 19.6 ± 13.2 18.0 ± 10.5 21.2 ± 15.4 0.239
Fatty Liver (N,%) 29 (44.0) 7 (21.2) 22 (66.7) <0.001 24 (24.5) 7 (14.7) 17 (34.7) 0.019
Antihypertension drug (N, (%)) 15 (22.7) 6 (18.2) 9 (27.3) 0.378 9 (9.2) 4 (8.1) 5 (10.2) >0.999
Statin (N,%) 7 (10.6) 2 (6.1) 5 (15.2) 0.427 7 (7.1) 6 (12.2) 1 (2.0) 0.111
Antiplatelet agent (N,%) 7 (10.6) 1 (21.2) 6 (12.1) 0.105 8 (8.1) 6 (12.2) 2 (4.1) 0.268
  1. NWL, normal weight lean; NWO, normal weight obesity; N, number; BP, blood pressure; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; AST/ALT, aspartate/alanine aminotransferase; CRP, C-reactive protein. Data are presented as mean ± SD or number (percentages). The p values represent differences between groups determined by an independent two-sample t-test for continuous variables and the χ2 test or the Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.