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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Contribution of subcutaneous abdominal fat on ultrasonography to carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Total (n = 234) Men (n = 131) Women (n = 103) P-value
Age (Year) 53.4 ± 12.1 52 ± 11.9 55.2 ± 12.1 0.04
BMI (kg/m2) 25.2 ± 3.8 25.5 ± 3.7 25.9 ± 3.9 0.22
SBP (mmHg) 125.1 ± 15.5 126.7 ± 16.1 123.1 ± 14.4 0.07
DBP (mmHg) 76.3 ± 9.7 77.3 ± 9.6 75 ± 9.7 0.07
HTN (%) 134 (57.3%) 72 (55%) 62 (60%) 0.25
DM duration (years) 6.4 ± 6.2 6.1 ± 5.9 6.7 ± 6.7 0.46
HbA1C (%) 8.3 ± 2.1 8.4 ± 2.2 8.1 ± 1.9 0.39
TC (mg/dl) 170.6 ± 39.3 167.7 ± 39.6 174.2 ± 38.8 0.22
LDL-C (mg/dl) 100.8 ± 35.5 99 ± 34.5 103.1 ± 36.7 0.40
HDL-C (mg/dl) 47.5 ± 11.8 45.4 ± 11.3 50.1 ± 11.9 0.003
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 119 (83, 179) 128 (86,195) 102 (82, 156) 0.001
HsCRP (mg/dl) 0.11 (0.06-0.24) 0.1 (0.06, 0.24) 0.12 (0.06, 0.23) 0.50
HOMA-IR 3.8 (2.4, 5.8) 4.0 (2.4-6.1) 3.6 (2.3-5.2) 0.32
Mean ABI 1.14 ± 0.08 1.14 ± 0.09 1.14 ± 0.06 0.89
Mean baPWV (cm/sec) 1506 ± 313 1516 ± 320 1493 ± 304 0.59
Mean CIMT (mm) 0.48 ± 0.14 0.48 ± 0.15 0.49 ± 0.14 0.89
VFT (mm) 39 ± 16.1 41.9 ± 15.5 35.2 ± 16.2 0.002
SFT (mm) 14.5 ± 5.8 13.8 ± 6 15.3 ± 5.5 0.039
VFT/SFT Ratio 3.2 ± 2.1 3.5 ± 1.7 2.8 ± 2.4 0.01
ARB or ACEI, n(%) 94 (40.2%) 58 (44.3%) 36 (35.3%) 0.11
Statin, n (%) 133 (57%) 74 (56.5%) 59 (57.8%) 0.47
Antiplatelet agent, n (%) 105 (45%) 66 (50.4%) 39 (38.2%) 0.04
Thiazolidinediones, n (%) 21 (9%) 14 (10.7%) 7 (6.8%) 0.212
Smoking, n (%) 48 (20.7%) 43 (32.8%) 5 (5%) <0.001
Prevalence of CVD, n (%) 27 (11.5%) 18 (13.7%) 7 (8.7%) 0.304
Prevalence of DN, n (%) 61 (26.1%) 39 (30%) 22 (21.4%) 0.073
  1. Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range). Triglyceride, HsCRP, Insulin, and HOMA-IR, are expressed as median (interquartile range) due to skewed distribution.
  2. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; HTN: hypertension; DM: diabetes mellitus; HbA1C: glycated hemoglobin; TC: total cholesterol; LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol; hsCRP: high sensitivity c-reactive protein; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; ABI: ankle brachial index; baPWV: brachial ankle pulse wave velocity; CIMT: carotid intima media thickness; VFT: visceral fat thickness; SFT: subcutaneous fat thickness; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; ACEI: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; CVD: cardiovascular disease; DN: diabetic nephropathy.