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Table 1 Anthropometric and biochemical variables among different glucose tolerance subjects

From: High glucose induces human endothelial dysfunction through an Axl-dependent mechanism

  NGT IGT Type 2 Diabetes *P value
  (n = 100) (n = 96) (n = 104)  
Age (years) 51.3 ± 1.46 55.1 ± 1.35 53.8 ± 1.28 0.032
Sex (M/F) 45/55 36/60 59/45 0.005
Blood pressure (mmHg)     
 Systolic 119.4 ± 1.56 124.7 ± 1.69 126.8 ± 1.78 0.005
 Diastolic 75.4 ± 0.82 77.6 ± 1.24 83.2 ± 1.13 0.006
OGTT glucose (mmol/L)     
 Fasting glucose 5.03 ± 0.08 5.48 ± 0.12 8.34 ± 0.38 <0.001
 2 h glucose 6.30 ± 0.06 10.13 ± 0.11 17.1 ± 0.36 <0.001
HbA1C (%) 5.5 ± 0.02 6.1 ± 0.06 8.4 ± 0.13 <0.001
HOMA-IR§ 2.02 ± 0.18 3.42 ± 0.22 4.89 ± 0.28 <0.001
Endothelial dysfunction markers     
 E-selectin (ng/ml) 44.8 ± 1.53 48.5 ± 1.82 62.3 ± 2.32 <0.001
 VCAM-1 (ng/ml) 518.2 ± 32.12 514.2 ± 36.81 668.4 ± 39.23 0.005
 ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 245.2 ± 8.78 246.2 ± 8.61 295.2 ± 9.52 <0.001
Gas6 (ng/ml)§ 15.2 ± 0.42 13.5 ± 0.48 11.2 ± 0.31 0.002
  1. * assessed by one-way ANOVA, data shown as mean ± standard error mean.
  2. §The logarithms of these variables were used for the analysis.
  3. NGT vs. type 2 diabetes. All assessed by post-hoc LSD test.
  4. NGT, normal glucose tolerance; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1.