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Table 1 Anthropometric, hemodynamic and biochemical characteristics of the study population according to glucose tolerance status

From: Vitamin D and 1-hour post-load plasma glucose in hypertensive patients

  All NGT < 155 NGT ≥ 155 IGT DM P*
Variables (n = 300) (n = 156) (n = 74) (n = 44) (n = 26)
Gender, m/f 160/140 74/82 44/30 26/18 16/10 0.274**
Age, years 52.9 ± 9.2 52.9 ± 8.7 52.7 ± 10.9 53.3 ± 9.4 53.3 ± 7.2 0.984
Waist, cm 91.6 ± 9.1 89.5 ± 7.4 93.5 ± 9.5 94.1 ± 11.6 94.7 ± 9.7 <0.0001
BMI, Kg/m 2 28.1 ± 4.2 27.3 ± 4.0 28.4 ± 4.2 28.8 ± 4.6 29.3 ± 3.9 0.028
SBP, mmHg 141.8 ± 10.7 140.9 ± 8.5 142.4 ± 12.6 143.2 ± 12.8 143.1 ± 12.1 0.463
DBP, mmHg 91.3 ± 6.9 91.4 ± 6.3 91.5 ± 7.3 90.8 ± 7.8 91.4 ± 8.1 0.956
Fasting glucose, mg/dl 94.8 ± 11.5 90.1 ± 7.2 98.6 ± 15.6 99.7 ± 8.3 103.8 ± 11.6 <0.0001
1-h glucose, mg/dl 152.3 ± 48.4 116.1 ± 24.0 182.6 ± 26.2 188.7 ± 39.3 221.6 ± 38.9 <0.0001
2-h glucose, mg/dl 124.7 ± 38.3 105.2 ± 17.6 114.1 ± 18.6 155.6 ± 11.8 220.2 ± 21.7 <0.0001
Fasting insulin, μU/ml 13.5 ± 7.1 11.3 ± 5.4 15.3 ± 7.3 16.3 ± 7.9 16.7 ± 8.9 <0.0001
1-h insulin, μU/ml 111.6 ± 62.1 91.2 ± 54.7 151.8 ± 61.7 115.9 ± 63.1 109.7 ± 50.8 <0.0001
2-h insulin, μU/ml 85.0 ± 56.1 61.8 ± 45.9 97.9 ± 60.3 117.3 ± 57.5 113.1 ± 41.6 <0.0001
MATSUDA/ISI 66.5 ± 37.3 83.5 ± 40.8 52.4 ± 25.4 50.5 ± 22.8 44.1 ± 22.5 <0.0001
Total cholesterol, mg/dl 212.5 ± 37.4 211.8 ± 36.7 212.2 ± 40.5 213.6 ± 39.2 215.5 ± 29.6 0.968
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl 49.6 ± 12.5 51.9 ± 12.3 47.2 ± 10.9 47.7 ± 14.4 45.6 ± 12.1 <0.0001
Triglyceride, mg/dl 122.1 ± 47.6 115.7 ± 40.3 128.4 ± 50.4 129.1 ± 49.8 131.5 ± 69.3 0.106
hs-CRP, mg/l 2.5 ± 1.9 1.8 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 2.1 3.3 ± 2.4 3.7 ± 2.1 <0.0001
Creatinine, mg/dl 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.3 <0.0001
e-GFR, ml/min/1.73 m 2 100.1 ± 25.1 104.1 ± 22.9 96.7 ± 24.6 95.8 ± 29.2 92.4 ± 28.1 0.027
25(OH)D, ng/ml 23.5(18–32.9) 26.5(20–35.6) 21(16–30) 21.5(15.6-28.7) 18.6(13–24.6) 0.002§
Parathyroid hormone, pg/ml 62.7 ± 42.7 50.7 ± 37.5 71.6 ± 46.5 77.1 ± 49.9 82.3 ± 19.1 0.004
Calcium, mg/dl 9.4 ± 0.5 9.4 ± 0.3 9.5 ± 0.4 9.3 ± 0.9 9.4 ± 0.4 0.305
Phosphorus, mg/dl 3.3 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 0.3 3.3 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 0.4 0.467
Current smokers, n(%) 80(26.7) 45(28.8) 15(20.3) 13(29.5) 7(26.9) 0.750**
  1. *By ANOVA; **By χ2 test; § by Kruskal Wallis test.
  2. NGT = normal glucose tolerance; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance; DM = diabetes mellitus; BMI = body mass index; SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; ISI = insulin sensitivity index; hs-CRP = high sensitivity C-reactive protein; e-GFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate.