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Table 2 The rate of congenital heart defects in the offspring of diabetic and control females with and without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment

From: N-Acetylcysteine prevents congenital heart defects induced by pregestational diabetes

Total N/litters Control 30/4 Diabetes 62/15 Control NAC 30/4 Diabetes NAC 43/7
n % n % n % n %
Normal 30 100 26 41.9** 27 90 36 83.7††
Abnormal 0 0 36 58.1** 3 10 7 16.3††
ASD 0 0 19 30.6** 2 6.7 6 13.9†
VSD 0 0 25 40.3** 1 3.3 5 11.6††
AVSD 0 0 4 6.5 0 0 0 0
TGA 0 0 4 6.5 0 0 0 0
DORV 0 0 8 12.9* 0 0 3 6.9
TOF 0 0 3 4.8 0 0 0 0
  1. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.001 vs. untreated control, †P < 0.05, ††P < 0.001 vs. untreated diabetes. ASD, atrial septal defect; VSD, ventricular septal defect; AVSD, atrioventricular septal defect; TGA, transposition of great arteries; DORV, double outlet right ventricle; TOF, Tetralogy of Fallot.