Congenital defects in the diabetic offspring at P0. (A) A normal heart of control offspring. The offspring of mice with pregestational diabetes show (B) atrial septal defect (ASD), (C) ventricular septal defect (VSD), (D) atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), (E and F) tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). (E) *pulmonary stenosis (PS), (F) VSD, overriding aorta (OA) marked by an arrow, and RV hypertrophy (RVH), (G) double outlet right ventricle (DORV), and (I) transposition of great arteries (TGA). Panels (H) and (I) are 3D-reconstructed images of a normal heart and a TGA, respectively. In panel (H) the aorta (red) is connected to the right ventricle (RV) while the pulmonary artery (PA in blue) is connected to LV. This defect is associated with a VSD. (J) Craniofacial defect in diabetic offspring. RA: right atria, LA: left atria, LV: left ventricle. Arrows indicate ASD or VSD. Scale bar is 200 μm.