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Table 7 Independent correlates of lower limb vascular events

From: Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Variables Any lower limb vascular event Ulceration/gangrene
  OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
Age, x year 1.025 1.013-1.037 <0.0001 1.033 1.017-1.048 <0.0001
Diabetes duration, x year 1.033 1.023-1.043 <0.0001 1.024 1.011-1.037 <0.0001
Gender, male 1.727 1.408-2.118 <0.0001 1.448 1.123-1.866 0.004
BMI, x unit
Smoking    0.008
  No 1.0      
  Former 1.347 1.100-1.650 0.004    
  Current 1.317 1.010-1.718 0.042    
Triglycerides, x 0.0113 mmol/l 1.385 1.005-1.909 0.047
HDL cholesterol, x 0.259 mmol/l 0.979 0.972-0.987 <0.0001 0.985 0.976-0.994 0.001
Dyslipidemia 1.557 1.201-2.018 0.001
Hypertension
Diabetes treatment, n (%)    <0.0001    <0.0001
  Diet 1.0    1.0   
  OHA 1.274 0.871-1.861 0.212 1.828 1.023-3.266 0.042
  Insulin + OHA 1.146 0.710-1.848 0.577 1.669 0.845-3.296 0.140
  Insulin 2.014 1.321-3.072 0.001 2.948 1.595-5.449 0.001
Albuminuria    <0.0001    <0.0001
  Normoalbuminuria 1.0    1.0   
  Microalbuminuria 1.527 1.248-1.868 <0.0001 1.878 1.447-2.436 <0.0001
  Macroalbuminuria 1.375 0.967-1.957 0.076 2.053 1.351-3.119 0.001
eGFR (MDRD)    <0.0001    <0.0001
  ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.0    1.0   
  6089 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.221 0.947-1.574 0.124 1.195 0.851-1.678 0.303
  3059 ml/min/1.73 m2 2.187 1.626-2.942 <0.0001 2.104 1.430-3.097 <0.0001
  <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 2.001 1.107-3.618 0.022 2.059 1.018-4.165 0.044
Retinopathy    <0.0001    <0.0001
  No retinopathy 1.0    1.0   
  Non advanced retinopathy 1.696 1.353-2.125 <0.0001 1.880 1.403-2.520 <0.0001
  Advanced retinopathy 1.892 1.439-2.489 <0.0001 2.680 1.926-3.729 <0.0001
MODEL 1       
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.086 1.003-1.175 0.042
MODEL 2       
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.086 1.003-1.175 0.042  
  HbA 1c -SD, 1% increment 1.208 0.974-1.497 0.085 1.407 1.134-1.746 0.036
MODEL 3       
HbA 1c -MEAN    0.026
  quartile 1 1.0      
  quartile 2 1.075 0.800-1.445 0.632    
  quartile 3 1.466 1.101-1.953 0.009    
  quartile 4 1.296 0.967-1.737 0.083    
HbA 1c -SD quartiles    0.036
  quartile 1     1.0   
  quartile 2     1.057 0.736-1.518 0.764
  quartile 3    1.018 0.709-1.462 0.922
  quartile 4     1.498 1.061-2.116 0.022
  1. Logistic regression analysis with backward variables selection of independent correlates of any lower limb vascular event and ulceration/gangrene versus no CVD. ORs of variables except HbA1c-MEAN, Hb-A1c-SD and their quartiles were determined by multivariate logistic analysis from MODEL 1. The results did not change significantly in MODEL 2 and MODEL 3.