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Table 6 Independent correlates of cerebrovascular events

From: Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Variables Any cerebrovascular event Stroke
  OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
Age, x year 1.022 1.012-1.032 <0.0001 1.046 1.030-1.062 <0.0001
Diabetes duration, x year 1.033 1.025-1.042 <0.0001
Gender, male 1.720 1.452-2.036 <0.0001 2.041 1.520-2.739 <0.0001
BMI, x unit 1.016 1.000-1.033 0.046
Smoking    0.060    0.020
  No 1.0    1.0   
  Former 1.196 1.010-1.416 0.030 1.446 1.081-1.935 0.013
  Current 1.216 0.976-1.516 0.081 1.503 1.030-2.194 0.034
Triglycerides, x 0.0113 mmol/l 1.520 1.158-1.995 0.003 2.269 1.348-3.819 0.002
HDL cholesterol, x 0.259 mmol/l 0.983 0.977-0.989 <0.0001 0.987 0.977-0.998 0.017
Dyslipidemia 1.780 1.424-2.224 <0.0001 1.644 1.125-2.402 0.010
Hypertension
Diabetes treatment, n (%)    <0.0001    <0.0001
  Diet 1.0    1.0   
  OHA 1.176 0.881-1.570 0.272 1.339 0.808-2.218 0.257
  Insulin + OHA 0.611 0.402-0.927 0.021 1.756 0.938-3.297 0.080
  Insulin 1.911 1.375-2.657 <0.0001 3.541 2.074-6.046 <0.0001
Albuminuria    <0.0001
  Normoalbuminuria 1.0      
  Microalbuminuria 1.405 1.187-1.665 <0.0001    
  Macroalbuminuria 1.146 0.839-1.565 0.390    
eGFR (MDRD)    <0.0001    0.001
  ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.0    1.0   
  6089 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.126 0.211.376 0.247 1.394 0.963-2.018 0.078
  3059 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.747 1.367-2.233 <0.0001 1.817 1.167-2.830 0.008
  <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 2.759 1.718-4.431 <0.0001 3.798 1.868-7.721 <0.0001
Retinopathy    <0.0001
  No retinopathy 1.0      
  Non advanced retinopathy 1.458 1.207-1.762 <0.0001    
  Advanced retinopathy 1.089 0.840-1.411 0.521    
MODEL 1       
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.096 1.026-1.171 0.007
MODEL 2       
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.096 1.026-1.171 0.007
  HbA 1c -SD, 1% increment
MODEL 3       
HbA 1c -MEAN    0.002
  quartile 1 1.0      
  quartile 2 00.981 0.776-1.241 0.874    
  quartile 3 1.410 1.116-1.781 0.004    
  quartile 4 1.325 1.029-1.707 0.029    
HbA 1c -SD quartiles
  1. Logistic regression analysis with backward variables selection of independent correlates of any cerebrovascular event and stroke versus no CVD. ORs of variables except HbA1c-MEAN, Hb-A1c-SD and their quartiles were determined by multivariate logistic analysis from MODEL 1. The results did not change significantly in MODEL 2 and MODEL 3.