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Table 4 Independent correlates of any CVD event(s)

From: Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Variables Any CVD event
  OR 95%CI P
Age, x year 1.018 1.011-1.024 <0.0001
Diabetes duration, x year 1.019 1.013-1.025 <0.0001
Gender, male 1.746 1.550-1.967 <0.0001
BMI, x unit - - -
Smoking    <0.0001
  No 1.0   
  Former 1.413 1.254-1.591 <0.0001
  Current 1.156 0.986-1.354 0.074
Triglycerides, x 0.0113 mmol/l 0.999 0.999-1.000 0.040
HDL cholesterol, x 0.259 mmol/l 0.983 0.978-0.987 <0.0001
Dyslipidemia 1.713 1.470-1.997 <0.0001
Hypertension 2.054 1.699-2.484 <0.0001
Diabetes treatment, n (%)    <0.0001
  Diet 1.0   
  OHA 1.266 1.038-1.544 0.020
  Insulin + OHA 1.228 0.942-1.601 0.128
  Insulin 2.051 1.623-2.593 <0.0001
Albuminuria    0.052
  Normoalbuminuria 1.0   
  Microalbuminuria 1.167 1.030-1.323 0.015
  Macroalbuminuria 1.069 0.845-1.351 0.580
eGFR (MDRD)    <0.0001
  ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.0   
  6089 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.116 0.975-1.278 0.112
  3059 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.820 1.531-2.162 <0.0001
  <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 2.278 1.541-3.367 <0.0001
Retinopathy    <0.0001
  No retinopathy 1.0   
  Non advanced retinopathy 1.295 1.122-1.495 0.0001
  Advanced retinopathy 1.298 1.084-1.554 0.005
MODEL 1    
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.062 1.011-1.114 0.016
MODEL 2    
  HbA 1c -MEAN, 1% increment 1.062 1.011-1.114 0.016
  HbA 1c -SD, 1% increment - - -
MODEL 3    
HbA 1c -MEAN    0.001
  quartile 1 1.0   
  quartile 2 0.923 0.787-1.082 0.322
  quartile 3 1.248 1.066-1.462 0.006
  quartile 4 1.096 0.928-1.295 0.281
HbA 1c -SD quartiles
  1. Logistic regression analysis with backward variables selection of independent correlates of any CVD event versus no CVD event. ORs of variables except HbA1c-MEAN, HbA1c-SD, and their quartiles were determined by multivariate logistic analysis from MODEL 1. The results did not change significantly in MODEL 2 and MODEL 3.