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Table 4 Longitudinal associations between one-year changes in inflammatory or metabolic markers and tertiles of change in dietary phylloquinone intake (μg/day)

From: Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

  Tertile 1 Tertile 2 p Tertile 3 p p for trend
C-Peptide (ng/mL) Ref. −2.19 (−8.35 to 4.40) 0.505 −6.10 (−12.61 to 0.91) 0.086 0.083
Ghrelin (pg/mL) Ref. 1.69 (−8.58 to 13.11) 0.758 −15.00 (−24.49 to −4.32) 0.007 0.003
GIP (pg/mL) Ref. 0.08 (−10.17 to 11.49) 0.989 −12.94 (−22.75 to −1.89) 0.023 0.014
GLP-1 (ng/mL) Ref. 0.21 (−12.99 to 15.42) 0.977 −17.64 (−29.67 to −3.56) 0.016 0.009
IL-6 (pg/ml) Ref. −4.50 (−18.17 to 11.46) 0.559 −27.89 (−39.20 to −14.48) <0.001 <0.001
Leptin (ng/mL) Ref. −7.79 (−15.61 to 0.76) 0.073 −10.26 (−18.62 to −1.03) 0.030 0.044
PAI-1 (ng/mL) Ref. −3.06 (−10.65 to 5.17) 0.454 −3.24 (−11.61 to 5.93) 0.476 0.529
Resistin (ng/mL) Ref. −2.43 (−11.03 to 7.01) 0.601 −6.66 (−15.71 to 3.35) 0.184 0.180
TNF (pg/mL) Ref. −3.96 (−20.47 to 15.98) 0.674 −26.89 (−40.65 to −9.94) 0.003 0.002
Visfatin (ng/mL) Ref. −8.08 (−24.73 to 12.24) 0.408 −24.90 (−39.86 to −6.22) 0.012 0.010
Adiponectin (μg/mL) Ref. −3.27 (−19.20 to 15.79) 0.716 −7.34 (−23.98 to 12.93) 0.449 0.452
Adipsin (μg/mL) Ref. −2.45 (−15.37 to 12.45) 0.732 −7.39 (−20.90 to 8.44) 0.340 0.332
  1. Multivariable linear regression models were used for analysis. Data are given in % of change (95% IC). Models are adjusted for sex, age, change of body-mass-index, smoking (never, current, past), change of total energy intake (kcal/d), change of fibre intake (g/d), change of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids intake (g/d), physical activity (kcal/d), intervention group, change of Mediterranean Diet Score (%), T2DM and baseline values of each metabolic marker. GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide-1, IL-6 Interleukin-6, PAI-1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, TNF, Tumor Necrosis Factor α.