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Table 2 Baseline and 1-year change of dietary characteristics by tertiles of change in dietary phylloquinone intake (μg/day)

From: Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

  Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 P
(n=172) (n=175) (n=163)
Total energy intake, (kcal/d)     
 Baseline 2526 ± 557 2359 ± 547 2270 ± 514 <0.001
 Change −85 ± 561 86 ± 30 198 ± 521 <0.001
Energy from total protein, (% kcal)     
 Baseline 17 ± 3 17 ± 3 17 ± 3 0.386
 Change 0 ± 3 −1 ± 3 0 ± 3 0.134
Energy from total carbohidrates, (% kcal)     
 Baseline 42 ± 6 42 ± 7 42 ± 7 0.982
 Change −2 ± 6 −2 ± 7 −2 ± 8 0.958
Fiber intake, g/1,000 kcal     
 Baseline 12 ± 4 12 ± 3 11 ± 3 0.023
 Change −1 ± 3 0 ± 2 2 ± 3 <0.001
Energy from total fat, (% kcal)     
 Baseline 39 ± 6 39 ± 6 39 ± 6 0.393
 Change 2 ± 6 3 ± 7 2 ± 8 0.240
  Saturated fatty acids, (%)     
   Baseline 27 ± 4 26 ± 5 26 ± 4 0.829
   Change −2 ± 5 −3 ± 5 −2 ± 5 0.271
  MUFA, (%)     
   Baseline 49 ± 5 48 ± 5 49 ± 5 0.242
   Change 1 ± 6 2 ± 5 1 ± 6 0.140
  PUFA, (%)     
   Baseline 17 ± 4 17 ± 4 16 ± 4 0.456
   Change 0 ± 5 1 ± 5 1 ± 5 0.221
Phylloquinone intake, (μg/d)     
 Baseline 490 ± 229 401 ± 209 297 ± 163 <0.001
 Change −176 ± 150 16 ± 25 266 ± 164 <0.001
Vegetable consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 413 ± 167 380 ± 182 335 ± 186 <0.001
 Change −42 ± 180 17 ± 131 141 ± 175 <0.001
Leafy green vegetables, (g/d)     
 Baseline 112 ± 47 95 ± 47 75 ± 44 <0.001
 Change −30 ± 38 1 ± 20 55 ± 44 <0.001
Other vegetables, (g/d)     
 Baseline 276 ± 138 265 ± 142 239 ± 147 0.053
 Change −13 ± 149 7 ± 120 79 ± 153 <0.001
Fruit consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 479 ± 258 451 ± 240 432 ± 251 0.221
 Change −12 ± 223 36 ± 211 67 ± 238 0.005
Legume consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 20 ± 11 19 ± 12 17 ± 9 0.046
 Change 1 ± 12 4 ± 12 7 ± 13 <0.001
Cereal consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 270 ± 103 256 ± 102 249 ± 103 0.150
 Change −27 ± 100 −10 ± 119 −1 ± 113 0.091
Dairy product consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 357 ± 227 371 ± 252 349 ± 195 0.656
 Change −8 ± 212 −8 ± 190 2 ± 181 0.854
Meat consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 154 ± 61 148 ± 61 143 ± 56 0.243
 Change −14 ± 58 −12 ± 62 −2 ± 61 0.137
Fish consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 115 ± 46 106 ± 46 106 ± 42 0.099
 Change −1 ± 52 9 ± 46 15 ± 43 0.008
Alcohol intake, (g/d)     
 Baseline 13 ± 19 10 ± 19 7 ± 12 0.013
 Change 0 ± 13 −1 ± 17 1 ± 9 0.173
Olive oil consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 39 ± 15 36 ± 14 38 ± 15 0.248
 Change 5 ± 19 11 ± 19 9 ± 20 0.021
Nut consumption, (g/d)     
 Baseline 16 ± 17 14 ± 15 11 ± 13 0.029
 Change 7 ± 25 10 ± 25 11 ± 24 0.185
14-item PREDIMED MedDiet Score     
 Baseline 9 ± 2 9 ± 2 8 ± 2 0.443
 Change 1 ± 2 1 ± 2 2 ± 2 0.031
  1. Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation. ANOVA was used for analysis of the difference between tertils of change in vitamin K intake. Abbreviations: MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, MedDiet Mediterranean diet.